Flashcards in Chapter 8 Pathophysiology Deck (74)
The breakdown of molecules such as glucose through a series of reactions that produce energy within cells in the presence of oxygen is known as what?
what process occurs in the fluid portion of a cell (cytosol) & doesn't require oxygen?
What are some other by-products of aerobic metabolism?
water, carbon dioxide, & heat
what is the by product "heat" used for in the body?
What is anaerobic metabolism?
is the breakdown of molecules with air
What are the by product of anaerobic metabolism?
Lactic acid and a small amount of ATP
What is ATP?
ATP is produced by almost all living things in their cell's organelles called mitochondria. It stands for adenosine triphosphate and it is the major 'currency' of energy in the body.
What happens when to a cell when its sodium potassium pump fails.?
When the pump fails sodium (NA) collects inside the cell because their is a lack of (ATP) energy to create the pump cycle and the potassium hangs around. Since water follows sodium water fills the cell and it eventually ruptures.
what causes cellular pump failure
The lack of oxygen
because oxygen is need in respiration and ventilation for the gas exchange to make ATP energy.
The delivery of oxygen, glucose, and other substances to the cells and the elimination of waste products is referred to as what?
What is needed to maintain adequate perfusion?
the components of the delivery and waste system must work properly.
What are the components of the delivery and waste system?
composition of ambient air
mechanics of ventilation
regulation of ventilation
ventilation an perfusion ratio
transport of oxygen & carbon dioxide
pump function of the myocardium
systemic vascular resistance
What happens to a cell if it has inadequate perfusion?
It shift from an aerobic to an anaerobic metabolism
What is ambient air?
is air that humans & other organism live in and breathe.
It is colorless, odorless, tasteless gaseous mixture
and at sea level its 78% nitrogen, 21% oxygen, 0.9 % argon & 0.03% carbon dioxide
How can you raise the cellular oxygenation in a patient who suffer from hypoxia?
increasing the concentration of oxygen that the patient is breathing and ensuring its at 21%
What is FiO2 and how is it expressed?
FiO2 is the fraction of inspired oxygen and it is expressed in decimal.
ambient air that contains 21% oxygen = 0.21
What does FDO2 mean?
fraction of delivered oxygen
What is the difference betweenFiO2 and FDO2?
FiO2 is oxygen given to a patient when they can breathe on their own and FDO2 is oxygen given to a patient who is ventilated unable to breathe on their own.
Some toxic gases displace the amount of oxygen in the air suffocating the patient while others (carbon monoxide) disrupts the ability of the blood to carry adequate amounts of blood to the cells.
when either takes place how do the cells end up?
Another type of toxic gas interferes with the cells use of oxygen by the cell. What is the name of the gas?
What is one of the most important aspects of any emergency care provided?
establish and maintain patent airway
What is patent airway?
an airway that is one open and not obstructed by blood, secretions, vomitus, tissue, bone, teeth, or any other substance.
An airway obstruction can happen in both the upper and lower airway including what?
nasopharynx, oropharynx, posterior pharynx, epiglottis, larynx, trachea, and bronchi
Why is it important to keep the nasopharynx clear?
The nasopharynx leads to the larynx, trachea, and the lungs.
Why is it important to keep the nasopharynx clear in infants?
they are obligate nose breathers
What can obstruct the nasopharynx?
blood, vomit, tissue swelling, bone fragment, & other substances.
What can obstruct the oropharynx and the pharynx?
tongue, foreign bodies, tissue swelling, hematomas, blood, vomit, & other substances
what does aspirated mean?
breathed into the lungs
what condition can occur if aspiration occurs?