chapter 31 Head Trauma Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in chapter 31 Head Trauma Deck (27)
1

a loss of the ability to create new memories after the event that caused the amnesia, leading to a partial or complete inability to recall the recent past, while long-term memories from before the event remain intact.

anterograde amnesia

2

also mastoid ecchymosis, is an indication of fracture of middle cranial fossa of the skull, and may suggest underlying brain trauma.

Battle's sign consists of bruising over the mastoid process, as a result of extravasation of blood along the path of the posterior auricular artery

Battle signs

3

the funnel shaped inferior part and is the best protected portion. It controls most automatic functions of the body

brainstem

4

(the little brain) controls equilibrium and coordinates muscle activity

cerebellum

5

the brain is cushioned in a dense serous substance called

cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)

6

the largest part of the brain and is responsible for most conscious and sensory functions, the emotions, and personality

cerebrum

7

a minor traumatic brain injury that may occur when the head hits an object, or a moving object strikes the head.

concussion

8

The reaction of both pupils when only one eye is exposed to a change in light intensity. Also known as consensual eye reflex.

consensual reflex

9

is an injury to the muscle, bone, or soft tissue of the body. (bruise)

contusion

10

a hypothalamic response to ischemia, usually due to poor perfusion (delivery of blood) in the brain.

presents as an increase in systolic and pulse pressure, reduction of the heart rate (bradycardia), and irregular respiration

Cushing reflex

11

commonly known as double vision, is the simultaneous perception of two images of a single object that may be displaced horizontally, vertically, or diagonally (i.e. both vertically and horizontally) in relation to each other

diplopia

12

a type of traumatic brain injury (TBI) in which a buildup of blood occurs between the dura mater (the tough outer membrane of the central nervous system) and the skull.

epidural hematoma

13

an abnormal body posture that involves the arms and legs being held straight out, the toes being pointed downward, and the head and neck being arched backwards. The muscles are tightened and held rigidly.

This type of posturing usually means there has been severe damage to the brain.

•Bleeding in the brain from any cause (intracranial hemorrhage)
•Brain stem tumor
•Cerebral infarction (stroke)
•Encephalopathy (brain problem due to drugs, poisoning, or infection)
•Head injury
•Hepatic encephalopathy (brain problem due to liver failure)
•Increased pressure in the brain from any cause
•Primary brain tumor
•Secondary brain tumor

extension posturing

14

is an abnormal posturing in which a person is stiff with bent arms, clenched fists, and legs held out straight. The arms are bent in toward the body and the wrists and fingers are bent and held on the chest.

This type of posturing is a sign of severe damage in the brain. sign of damage to the nerve pathway between the brain and spinal cord

Causes:
•Bleeding in the brain (intracranial hemorrhage)
•Brain tumor
•Head injury
•Increased intracranial pressure from any cause
•Stroke
•Worsening of brain function that occurs from liver damage, infections in the brain, and other causes

flexion posturing

15

the protrusion of an organ or the fascia of an organ through the wall of the cavity that normally contains it.

herniation

16

A jagged wound or cut.

laceration

17

the surface of the brain is protected by three layers of tissue that enclose the brain known as

meninges

18

a loss of memory-access to events that occurred, or information that was learned, before an injury or the onset of a disease.[

retrograde amnesia

19

is a type of hematoma, usually associated with traumatic brain injury.

Blood gathers within the outermost meningeal layer, between the dura mater, which adheres to the skull, and the arachnoid mater, which envelops the brain.

subdural hematoma

20

the brain is surrounded by large flat plates that are fused together to form a helmet like covering called

cranial skull

21

the outer most meninges layer that is composed of double layers of tough fibrous tissue is called

dura mater (hard mother)

22

the second layer of meninges is called

arachnoid

23

the inner most layer which is in contact with the brain is called

pia mater (soft mother)

24

bleeding between the dura mater and the skull is called

epidural

25

between the arachnoid membrane and the surface of the brain is called

subarachnoid hematoma

26

floor of the skull and is made up of many separate pieces of bone

basilar skull

27

what is a useful tool to determine a patients responsiveness

glassgow coma scale