Chapter 7 Anatomy, Physiology, & Terinology Flashcards Preview

Prehospital Emergency Care > Chapter 7 Anatomy, Physiology, & Terinology > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 7 Anatomy, Physiology, & Terinology Deck (162)
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1
Q

What is anatomy?

A

refers to the structure of the body and the relation of its parts to one another.

2
Q

What is physiology?

A

refers to the function of the living body and its parts.

3
Q

What is the anatomical position of the human body?

A

body standing erect, facing forward, with arms down at the sides and palms facing forward.

4
Q

If a patient is lying face up on his back?

A

Supine

5
Q

If a patient is lying face down on his stomach?

A

Prone

6
Q

if a patient is lying on left or right side?

A

Lateral recumbent position

7
Q

If a patient is lying on his back with his upper body elevated at a 45 to 60 degree

A

Fowlers position

8
Q

if a patient is lying on his back and his upper body is elevated at less than 45 degrees?

A

Semi-Fowler position

9
Q

If a patient is lying on his back with the legs elevated higher than the head and body on an inclined plane (head down legs up)

A

Tredelenburg position

10
Q

Define the Shock position

A

feet and legs elevated

11
Q

Are the Tredelenburg & shock position still used to treat patients in shock.

A

NO

12
Q

what are anatomical planes?

A

Divisions of the body

13
Q

Which plane is a vertical plane that runs lengthwise and divides the body into right and left segments

A

Sagittal plane (median plane)

14
Q

Which plane divides the body into front and back halves

A

Frontal (coronal plane)

15
Q

this plane is parallel with the ground and divides the body into upper or lower halves

A

Transverses plane (horizontal plane)

16
Q

what line is it when you draw a line vertically through the body.

A

Midline

17
Q

Define the Midaxillary line

A

vertically from the middle of the armpit down to the ankle

18
Q

what is the anterior plane

A

the patient’s front

19
Q

What is the posterior plane

A

the Patients back

20
Q

What is the superior plane?

A

above the waist

21
Q

What is the inferior plane?

A

Below the waist

22
Q

Towards the front is?

A

Anterior

23
Q

Towards the back is

A

Posterior

24
Q

What meaning is toward the head or above the point of reference?

A

Superior

25
Q

What meaning is toward the feet or below the point of reference.

A

Inferior

26
Q

define dorsal

A

toward the back bone or spine

27
Q

define ventral

A

towards the front or belly

28
Q

Define Medial

A

towards the center of the body

29
Q

Define Lateral

A

left or right side of the midline

30
Q

Define Bi-lateral

A

on both sides

31
Q

Define Proximal

A

near the point of reference

32
Q

Define Distal

A

distant or far from the point of interest.

33
Q

What refers to center of each of the collarbones (clavicle)?

A

Midclavicular

34
Q

What refers to the center of the arm pit?

A

Maxillary

35
Q

What refers to the sole of the foot?

A

Planter

36
Q

What refers to the palm of the hand?

A

Palmer

37
Q

name the abdominal quadrants

A

right upper quadrant
right lower quadrant
left upper quadrant
left lower quadrant

38
Q

the musculoskeletal System consist of what?

A

a bony framework (skeleton) held together by ligaments that connect bone to bone, and tendons that connect muscles to bones and various other tissues.

39
Q

what four things do the skeleton serve?

A
  1. Giving the body it shape
  2. Protecting the vital internal organs
    3, Allowing for movement
  3. Storing minerals and producing blood cells
40
Q

The skeleton has six basic components. What are they

A
  1. skull
  2. spinal column
  3. thorax
  4. pelvis
  5. upper extremities
  6. lower extremities
41
Q

The Skull has two parts. What are they?

A
  1. the cranium; forms the top, back, side of the skull
42
Q

Name the for lobes of the cranium.

A
  1. occipital lobes
  2. two parietal lobes
  3. two temporal lobes
  4. frontal lobes
43
Q

The spinal column is composed of how many vertebrae?

A

33

44
Q

The spinal column is divided into five parts. What are they?

A
  1. cervical
  2. thoracic
  3. lumbar
  4. sacral
  5. coccyx
45
Q

The first seven C1-C7 form the _______spine and are most prone to injury.

A

cervical

46
Q

The 12 ______ vertebrae that are directly inferior to the cervical spine form the upper back.

A

Thoracic spine T1-T12

47
Q

What is attached to the spine posteriorly and helps support the vertebrae.

A

12 pairs of thoracic ribs

48
Q

What are the 5 vertebrae that form the lower back?

A

lumbar spine L1-L5

49
Q

What is the name of the five fused vertebrae that form the posterior side of the pelvis?

A

Sacral spine S1-S5

50
Q

The last 4 fused vertebrae is known as

A

coccyx (tailbone)

51
Q

What is the thorax (chest) composed of?

A

the ribs, Sternum (breastbone), thoracic spine

52
Q

The first seven ribs are attached to the sternum by_____ and are called_______.

A

cartilage

true ribs

53
Q

The next three ribs are attached to the ribs above by what?

A

Cartilage

54
Q

the front ends of the last two ribs are not connected to the sternum and are called______.

A

floating ribs

55
Q

The last five ribs are known as_________.

A

False ribs

56
Q

what is the flat, narrow bone in the middle of the anterior chest.

A

Sternum

57
Q

what is the inferior portion of the sternum called?

A

xiphoid process

58
Q

What is a doughnut shaped structure that consist of several bones including the sacrum and the coccyx?

A

The Plevis

59
Q

What area of the pelvis forms the wings?

A

The ilac crest

60
Q

What is the anterior and inferior portion of the pelvis?

A

ischium

61
Q

What does the pelvis cavity support?

A

the intestines and houses the bladder rectum and internal reproductive organs.

62
Q

What are the limbs of the body known as

A

The upper and lower extremities

63
Q

the lower extremities are from ________ to_____.

A

hip toes

64
Q

the head of the femur is known as?

A

Acetabulum

65
Q

the thighbone is known as the?

A

Femur

66
Q

what bone protects and stabilizes the front of the knee joint?

A

Patel

67
Q

The two bones of the lower legs are known as

A

tibia and fibula

68
Q

The boney protrusion of the ankle is called?

A

the malleolus

69
Q

The heal is called the

A

Calcaeus

70
Q

the group of bones that make up the proximal portion of the foot is known as?

A

Tarsals

71
Q

Five______make up the substance of the foot.

A

metatarsals

72
Q

14 _________make up the toes.

A

phalanges

73
Q

The arms, shoulder, forearms, wrists and hands are called____________.

A

Upper extremities

74
Q

The shoulder girdle is composed of ______ and_____.

A

Scapula (shoulder blade)

Clavicle (collarbone)

75
Q

the tip of the shoulder girdle is?

A

Acormion

76
Q

The largest bone of the upper extremities is known as?

A

The humerus

77
Q

What is the lateral bone of the forearm?

A

the radius

78
Q

What is the medial bone of the forearm?

A

the ulna

79
Q

The bony prominence of the elbow is known as?

A

olecranon

80
Q

The writs consist of how many bones____ and are called_____.

A

8 carpals

81
Q

Where does the structural strength of the hand come from?

A

The metacarpals

82
Q

What is the name of the bone that makes up the fingers and the thumb?

A

Phalanges

83
Q

the place were bones connect to another is called_____.

A

Joints

84
Q

Movable joints allow changes in ____and______

A

position and motion

85
Q

Define Flexion

A

Bending towards the body or decreasing angle

86
Q

Define Extension

A

Bending away from the body and increasing angle

87
Q

Define Abduction

A

Movement away from the midline

88
Q

Define adduction

A

Movement toward the body

89
Q

define Circumduction

A

the combination of flexion, Extension, abduction, & adduction i.e. the shoulder joint.

90
Q

define Supination

A

Turning the forearm so the palm of the hand is facing forward

91
Q

Name 6 types of joints

A
  1. ball and socket joints (hip and shoulder)
  2. Hinged joints (elbows, knee, & fingers)
  3. Pivot joint ( between head/neck and the wrist
  4. Gliding joints (connect the small bones in the hands and feet_
  5. Saddle joints (ankle)
  6. Condyloid joint (modified ball joint which allows the hand to move up and down)
92
Q

How much blood can a patient lose from a fractured femur?

A

1000-2000ml

93
Q

What is responsible for movement in the body.

A

Muscle

94
Q

What are the cells of muscles called

A

Fibers

95
Q

Name the 3 kinds of muscle in the body:

A

Skeletal (voluntary)
smooth (involuntary)
cardiac

96
Q

what controls the skeletal muscles?

A

The brain and nervous system

97
Q

what is meant by voluntary muscle.

A

it can be contracted and relaxed by the will of the individual.

98
Q

Smooth muscle (involuntary) is made up of what

A

large fibers that carry out the automatic muscular functions of the body through rhythmic wavelike movement.

example: bile from gallbladder, food though digestive tract

99
Q

define vasoconstriction

A

decreasing the diameter of a vessel

100
Q

define vasodilation

A

increasing the diameter of a vessel

101
Q

Vasoconstriction and vasodilation are controlled by what muscle?

A

smooth muscles

102
Q

what muscle is only found in the wall of the heart?

A

Cardiac muscle

103
Q

The basic function of the respiratory system are?

A

Respiration
Ventilation
Oxygenation
Serving as a buffer to maintain normal acid-base balance

104
Q

the process to of moving oxygen and carbon dioxide across membranes, aveoli, capillaries, and cells is called?

A

Respiration

105
Q

define Oxygenation

A

is the form of respiration in which oxygen molecules move across a membrane from an area of high oxygen concentration to an area of low concentration.

106
Q

The mechanical process by which air is moved in and out of the lungs is called

A

Ventilation

107
Q

What system takes oxygen from the air and transports it to the blood?

A

Respiratory system

108
Q

Name the structures of the upper.

A

nose and mouth
pharynx
nasopharynx
larynx

109
Q

the upper airway ends were?

A

the cricoid cartilage

110
Q

Name the structures of the lower airway.

A

Trachea
Bronchi
bronchioles
alveoli

111
Q

Air enters the body through______ and _______.

A

nose and mouth

112
Q

What is the structure that food and air pass through

A

Pharynx (throat)

113
Q

Air from the nose enters the nasal portion of the pharynx known as________?

A

nasopharynx

114
Q

Air from the mouth enters through the oral portion of the pharynx known as_______?

A

oropharynx

115
Q

The lower end of the pharynx has to structures called _______and ________.

A

esophagus

trachea

116
Q

The trachea is anterior to ______?

A

esophagus

117
Q

The Trachea carries air to ________?

A

lungs

118
Q

directly superior to the trachea is the voice box also known as _______?

A

Larynx

119
Q

The Larynx houses the________.

A

vocal cords

120
Q

the anterior cartilage that cover the larynx iz called _____?

A

the thyroid cartilage (adams apple)

121
Q

The trachea is protected by a small leaf shape flap called the _______?

A

Epiglottis

122
Q

The distal portion of the trachea branches into two main tubes called _______?

A

bronchi

123
Q

Each bronchus divides and subdivides in to smaller ________>

A

bronchioles

124
Q

what occurs during bronchoconstriction?

A

the smooth muscle constrict decreasing the diameter of the bronchiole and thereby make it hard for air to pass.

125
Q

what occurs during bronchodialation

A

the smooth muscle relaxes, increasing the diameter thereby making it easer for air to pass through the bronchioles

126
Q

what is the tiny air sac at the end of the bronchioles?

A

Alveoli

127
Q

what is the Alveoli enclosed in?

A

capillaries (tiny blood vessels)

128
Q

what is the Alveoli purpose

A

Gas exchange in the lungs

129
Q

what are the principle organs of respiration?

A

Lungs

130
Q

what is the visceral plura?

A

covers the outer surface of the lung

131
Q

what is the parietal plura?

A

a thicker more elastic tissue that covers the internal chest wall.

132
Q

what is the pleural cavity

A

the layer between the visceral & parietal layers

133
Q

what is the powerful dome shaped muscle that is essential to breathing?

A

Diaphragm

134
Q

during inhalation the diaphragm and the________ contract increasing the size of the thoracic cavity.

A

intercostal muscles

135
Q

what organ contribute to 60-70 percent of the effort of breathing?

A

Diaphram

136
Q

what organ contribute to 30 to 40 percent of the effort of breathing?

A

intercostal muscles

137
Q

What stimulates the diaphragm to contract?

A

phrenic nerve in the cervical spine between C3-C5

138
Q

respiratory rate is___________________.

A

the number of breathes a patient takes in one minute.

139
Q

respiratory rate per min of an adult is_______ and in elderely is _________.

A

8-24

20 -22

140
Q

what are signs of inadequate breathing?

A
Rates to high or low for what normal for a patient
irregular breathing patterns
diminished or absent breath sounds
unequal chest expansion
inadequate chest expansion
Pale or blue mucus membranes or skin
use of accessory muscle
nasal flaring especially in children
seesaw breathing
head bobbing
Agonal breathing (occasional gasping breath)
Grunting
141
Q

the circulatory system consist of_______________.

A

heart, blood vessels and blood.

142
Q

what is the function of the circulatory system?

A
  1. Providing a medium for perfusion of cells with oxygen and other nutrients and the removal of waste.
  2. transporting blood to cells and the alveoli for gas exchange.
  3. housing blood.
  4. buffing the body’s acid-base balance
  5. delivering immune cells and other substances to fight infections.
  6. containing substance that promote clotting
143
Q

which organ is chambered muscular organ and lies within the chest cavity.

A

heart

144
Q

what is the pericardium?

A

its a double walled sac that encloses the heart, gives support, prevents friction as the heart moves in the sac.

145
Q

how many chambers does the heart have?

A

4

146
Q

the upper chamber that receives blood from the veins is ____?

A

atria

147
Q

The lower chambers of the heart are called _____?

A

Ventricle

148
Q

What prevents the backflow of blood and keeps blood flowing in one direction in the heart?

A

Valves

149
Q

what are the names of the four values of the heart?

A
  1. Tricuspid value: between the right atrium and the right ventricle.
  2. Pulmonary valve: at the base of the pulmonary artery in the right ventricle.
  3. Mitral valve: between the left atrium and the left ventricle
  4. Aortic valve: at the base of the aortic artery in the left ventricle.
150
Q

what is the myocardium ?

A

middle layer of muscle in the heart

151
Q

electrical impulse of the heart that causes the myocardium to contract originates at

A

sinoatrial (SA) node > atrioventricular (AV) node >bundle of HIS > Purkinje fibers > ventricals

152
Q

what carries blood away from the heart

A

Artery

153
Q

all arteries carry oxygenated blood except?

A

Pulmonary Artery

154
Q

which artery lies in front of the spine and passes through the thoracic and abdominal cavities?

A

Aorta

155
Q

which artery supply the heart with blood?

A

Coronary artery

156
Q

which artery supplies the brain and head with blood.?

A

Carotid artery

157
Q

which artery supplies the legs and groin with blood?

A

Femoral artery

158
Q

which artery supplies the foot?

A

Dorsalis pedis

159
Q

Which artery travels from the calf to the foot?

A

Posterior tibial arteries

160
Q

Which artery is the major artery of the upper arm

A

Brachial arteries

161
Q

which artery is most often used to take a patients pulse

A

Radial artery on the wrist

162
Q

which artery carries deoxygenated blood

A

Pulmonary