chapter 16: energy alternatives Flashcards Preview

Earth 122 > chapter 16: energy alternatives > Flashcards

Flashcards in chapter 16: energy alternatives Deck (49)
Loading flashcards...
1

whats special about the bay of fundy?

greatest difference between low and high tide in the world

2

why is tidal power better than traditional hydroelectric dams?

hydroelectric dams hold water behind dams (creates many negative impacts). tidal power does not involve this, instead the water has to be retained behind the sliding gates only for brief periods

3

what are the concerns of tidal energy?

interference with normal currents and with marine life

4

what is hydroelectric power?

= uses the kinetic energy of moving water to turn turbines and generate electricity

5

what is the storage technique approach of hydroelectric power?

stores water behind dams

6

what are run of river approaches in hydroelectric power?

generates energy without greatly disrupting the flow of river water

7

benefits of hydropower

renewable, clean(no emission of co2), efficient EROI 10:1

8

what country has nuclear power as its main sourcE?

france

9

what is nuclear energy?

energy that holds together protons and neutrons within the nucleus of an atom

10

what is nuclear fission?

the splitting apart of atomic nuclei

11

how is nuclear fission used for nuclear power?

splitting apart the atom releases energy.
energy release heats water within the core of a reactor>> This heat is transferred through heat exchangers to outer loops where steam generation is possible for generating power

12

what is the nuclear fuel cycle?

naturally occurring uranium is mined from underground deposits

13

what are control rods?

part of the process of creating nuclear energy.... soak up excess neutrons produced

14

why is nuclear reactor safety important?

if not regulated correctly, fuel and core materials can melt into an unmanageable mass and migrate. catastrophic release of radiation into environment

15

what happens during a nuclear meltdown?

coolant water is drained from the reactor vessel, temperatures rises inside the reactor core, and metal surrounding the uranium fuel rods begin to melt, releasing radiation

16

what are the three major events that have been most influential in shaping public opinion about nuclear energy?

three mile island, chernobyl, Fukushima Daiichi.

17

what was the three mile island incident?

a near-miss nuclear meltdown. the most serious event of its kind in US. multibillion dollar clean up took years, no significant health effects to residents have been noted. 1979

18

what was the chernobyl incident?

explosion at chernobyl nuclear plant in ukraine, most severe nuclear power plant event in the world. For 10 days, radiation escaped from the plant while crews tried to put out the fire. 31 died directly, thousands died from cancer after the event 1989

19

chernobyn sarcophagus

giant steel structure to isolate contaminated area from chernobyl incident. a "cover"

20

what was the fukashiima daiichi incident?

a 2011 earth quake in japan caused a tsunami that caused flooding of generators in fukashiima daiichi plant. overheating of reactor cores caused fires explosions and core meltdowns. trace amounts of radioactive material found in the pacific ocean.

21

why is radioactive waste disposal problematic?

the half-lives of uranium, plutonium,
and many other radioisotopes are far longer than human lifetimes so this high level waste will continue to emit radiation for thousands of years. radioactive
waste must be placed in unusually stable and secure
locations and monitored for many, many years.

22

what idea are scientists testing in Lac du Bonnet, Manitoba, for disposing of nuclear waste?

geological isolation : long-term storage deep underground in the stable, ancient crystalline rocks of the Canadian Shield

23

biomass

organic material that make up living organisms, can be a source of energy

24

what classifies a "new" renewable energy source?

not used widely, their technology is still in development

25

what is nuclear fusion?

involves forcing together the small nuclei of lightweight
elements under extremely high temperature and pressure, process that drives our suns output of energy...uses hydrogen from water for fuel. low pollution and waste/ not sure yet if nuclear fusion is a viable option, costs lots of money.

26

are fossil fuels considered biomass energy?

no. because the matter from living organisms has been decayed for millions of years

27

ethanol

a fuel made by fermenting biomass.. used to power cars.

28

biodiesel

fuel made from vegetable oil mixed with small amounts of ethanol or methanol

29

t/f: electricity can be generated from biomass

true

30

cogeneration

simultaneous production of different
forms of energy through two mechanisms operating at the same plant