Flashcards in Chapter 7: Soils Deck (82)
What is the Meur Bleu bog?
The Meur Bleue bog is a 35km^2 protected wetland located east of Ottawa.
What type of soil does the Mer Bleue wetland have?
Peat. (deposits formed over 800 yrs and are up to 6m thick)
Why are Northern peatlands important?
They are storage reservoirs for carbon, holding about one 3rd of all carbon stored in soils.
How much energy does all the peat in the world contain?
8 billion terajoules
Fill in the blanks: The formation of peat is often the first step of ______, such as ________.
the first step of the [geological formation of fossil fuels] such as [COAL](low grade coal such as lignite)
How does peat produce soil gases such as CO2 and CH4?
Through decomposition of organic matter
How does climate change affect soils?
Warming can lead soils to decompose at faster rates and thus release more soil gases, created a higher concentration of carbon-gas in the atmosphere.
What is the difference between soil and dirt?
Dirt: loose material derived from rock
Soil: A complex plant supporting system consisting of weathered rock, organic matter, water, gases, nutrients, and microorganisms
Define: Parent Material (soils)
the base geological material from which the soil is formed
What is soil solution?
Water that partially fills the open space in soils. This is never "pure" water, contains dissolved minerals and organics
How does the formation of soil begin?
When the parent material is exposed to the effects of the atmosphere/hydrosphere/biosphere(weathering)
Give examples of possible parent material for soils
Lava, volcanic ash, rock/sediment deposited by water bodies, most commonly bedrock(earth's crust)
What are the processes most responsible for soil formation?
Weathering, erosion, deposition and decomposition of organic matter
Small, loose particles of mineral matter, precursors of soils
Give examples of physical weathering
temperature, wind, rain, ice, (thermal expansion/contraction)
How is the air in soil different from the air we breathe?
soil air contains gases that are released from underlying rock, and gases that infiltrate from above such as constituents from spilled gas and oil
Name and briefly describe the five factors that influence soil formation
CLIMATE: -soil forms faster in warm, wet climates
-heat accelerates weathering, decomposition, biological growth
ORGANISMS: -worms and other burrowing animals facilitate soil processes. organic matter affects soil's composition
TOPOGRAPHY: -hills and valleys affect exposure to the sun,wind,water, influence how soil and water move.
-steep slope results in more runoff and erosion
PARENT MATERIAL: chem/physical attributes of parent material influence soils properties
TIME: soil formation occurs over long periods of time
Describe Biological Weathering
occurs when living things break down parent material by physical or chemical means(ex. lichens produce acid which chemically weathers rock)
dark, spongy, crumbly material made up of complex organic compounds
Each layer of soil
The whole cross section of soil, from surface to bedrock
a process in which materials suspended or dissolved in liquid are transported through the soil subsurfacw
soil surface deposits of leaves, branches, animal waste etc.
Name the 5 major types of soil horizons in order
O, A, B, C, R (only able bodies can run)
1st layer. peat deposits
2nd layer. uppermost mineral horizon, TOPSOIL(most vital to ecosystems and agriculture)
3rd layer. SUBSOIL, hard mineral rich layers
4th layer, Broken parent material, transition zone
5th layer, Unaltered parent material ROCK, layer