Chapter 7: Soils Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 7: Soils Deck (82)
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1

What is the Meur Bleu bog?

The Meur Bleue bog is a 35km^2 protected wetland located east of Ottawa.

2

What type of soil does the Mer Bleue wetland have?

Peat. (deposits formed over 800 yrs and are up to 6m thick)

3

Why are Northern peatlands important?

They are storage reservoirs for carbon, holding about one 3rd of all carbon stored in soils.

4

How much energy does all the peat in the world contain?

8 billion terajoules

5

Fill in the blanks: The formation of peat is often the first step of ______, such as ________.

the first step of the [geological formation of fossil fuels] such as [COAL](low grade coal such as lignite)

6

How does peat produce soil gases such as CO2 and CH4?

Through decomposition of organic matter

7

How does climate change affect soils?

Warming can lead soils to decompose at faster rates and thus release more soil gases, created a higher concentration of carbon-gas in the atmosphere.

8

What is the difference between soil and dirt?

Dirt: loose material derived from rock
Soil: A complex plant supporting system consisting of weathered rock, organic matter, water, gases, nutrients, and microorganisms

9

Define: Parent Material (soils)

the base geological material from which the soil is formed

10

What is soil solution?

Water that partially fills the open space in soils. This is never "pure" water, contains dissolved minerals and organics

11

How does the formation of soil begin?

When the parent material is exposed to the effects of the atmosphere/hydrosphere/biosphere(weathering)

12

Give examples of possible parent material for soils

Lava, volcanic ash, rock/sediment deposited by water bodies, most commonly bedrock(earth's crust)

13

What are the processes most responsible for soil formation?

Weathering, erosion, deposition and decomposition of organic matter

14

Define: Regolith

Small, loose particles of mineral matter, precursors of soils

15

Give examples of physical weathering

temperature, wind, rain, ice, (thermal expansion/contraction)

16

How is the air in soil different from the air we breathe?

soil air contains gases that are released from underlying rock, and gases that infiltrate from above such as constituents from spilled gas and oil

17

Name and briefly describe the five factors that influence soil formation

CLIMATE: -soil forms faster in warm, wet climates
-heat accelerates weathering, decomposition, biological growth
ORGANISMS: -worms and other burrowing animals facilitate soil processes. organic matter affects soil's composition
TOPOGRAPHY: -hills and valleys affect exposure to the sun,wind,water, influence how soil and water move.
-steep slope results in more runoff and erosion
PARENT MATERIAL: chem/physical attributes of parent material influence soils properties
TIME: soil formation occurs over long periods of time

18

Describe Biological Weathering

occurs when living things break down parent material by physical or chemical means(ex. lichens produce acid which chemically weathers rock)

19

Define: Humus

dark, spongy, crumbly material made up of complex organic compounds

20

Define: Horizon(soils)

Each layer of soil

21

Soil Profile

The whole cross section of soil, from surface to bedrock

22

Leaching

a process in which materials suspended or dissolved in liquid are transported through the soil subsurfacw

23

Litter

soil surface deposits of leaves, branches, animal waste etc.

24

Name the 5 major types of soil horizons in order

O, A, B, C, R (only able bodies can run)

25

O horizon

1st layer. peat deposits

26

A horizon

2nd layer. uppermost mineral horizon, TOPSOIL(most vital to ecosystems and agriculture)

27

B horizon

3rd layer. SUBSOIL, hard mineral rich layers

28

C horizon

4th layer, Broken parent material, transition zone

29

R horizon

5th layer, Unaltered parent material ROCK, layer

30

How are soils classified?

classified into 10 major groups called orders, with dozens of "great groups" and hundreds of "subgroups" . Classified using different properties such as colour, texture, structure, and pH