Flashcards in chapter 17: minerals Deck (27)
element number 73 on the Periodic Table of the Elements, used in cellphones and other technologies..
naturally occurring solid chemical element or inorganic compound with a crystal structure, a specific chemical composition, and distinct physical properties
solid aggregation of minerals
what are the five groups of minerals that compose 90% of the earth's crust?
feldspars, pyroxenes, amphiboles, micas, quartz
= waste rock and minerals that are not valuable
= type of chemical element that typically is shiny, opaque, and malleable, and conduct heat and electricity
a rock in which valuable
minerals have been concentrated by geological processes,
and from which we can extract metals and other useful
what country has the best safety record in mining?
a metal is mixed with another metal or nonmetal substance. ex. steel is an alloy of carbon and iron
what is smelting
= heating ore beyond its melting point then combining it with other metals or chemicals,
for the purpose of extracting base metal or ore from gangue
what are tailings
the remnants that are left over after metals have been extracted from ores, can pollute soil and water
what is asbestos? whats wrong with it?
fibrous mineral. cancer and lung problems associated with brown asbestos(amphibole)
= layers of soil and rock are removed to expose the resource (think of STAIRS)
shafts are excavated deep into the ground,
and networks of tunnels are dug or blasted out to follow
deposits of the mineral (think of ELEVATORS and TUNNELS
a narrow hole is drilled deep into the
ground to reach the mineral deposit >>> liquid is injected down the hole to leach the resource from the surrounding rock>>>mineral dissolves in the liquid >> solution is sucked out >>> mineral is extracted from the liquid
sulfuric acid runoff
sulfide minerals form sulfuric acid and flow into waterways, can make stream water toxic
what does it mean for a fluid to be effluent?
what is the berkely pit?
a former pit copper mine in the US, with toxic acidic waters.
what is open pit mining? when is it used?
digging massive holes and removing the desired ore,
along with waste rock that surrounds the ore. used when a mineral is spread widely throughout a rock formation./
what is a quarry?
= open pits for clay, gravel, sand, stone
uses running water to separate lightweight mud and gravel from heavier minerals of value
= small, ball-shaped ores scattered across the ocean floor which contain many minerals
what is a reserve?(mining)
the portion of a resource that is economically and legally mineable using current technologie
where does 80% of our lead come from?
what is reclamation?
to restore the site to a condition
similar to its pre-mining condition, but more commonly
the goal is simply to remove hazards