Chapter 3: Ecosystems Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 3: Ecosystems Deck (46)
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1

Open System

Receives inputs AND produces outputs of BOTH energy and matter

2

Closed System

Receives inputs and produces outputs of energy but NOT matter

3

Biomagnification

the concentration of toxins in an organism as a result of ingesting other plants or animals(animals higher up in the food chain will have higher concentrations of toxins)

4

Bioaccumulation

the accumulation of a toxic chemical in the tissue of a particular organism
combine easily with fats and build up over time
(DIFFERENT FROM BIOMAGNIFICATION, has nothing to do with consuming other species)

5

Hypoxia

Lack of dissolved oxygen (affects the st lawrence belugas)

6

Eutrophication

Nutrient over-enrichment in a body of water(can result from both natural and man-made influences)

7

Feedback Loop

When a systems output also serves as input to that system (input-output loop)

8

What is the difference between a NEGATIVE feedback loop and a POSITIVE feedback loop?

a NEGATIVE feedback loop moves a system towards another direction to stabilize the system (eg. when the body is hot, it sweats to keep cool)
a POSITIVE feedback loop drives a system towards a further extreme(does not stabilize).

9

Dynamic Equilibrium

When system processes move in opposing directions at equivalent rates, eventually achieving equilibrium(NOT STATIC)

10

Homeostasis

The tendency of a system to maintain constant/stable internal conditions

11

Resistance

the strength of a systems tendency to remain constant

12

Resilience

How quickly a system will return to its original state after being disturbed

13

Emergent properties

Characteristics of a system that are not easily apparent by looking at its individual components alone

14

Autotrophs

Organisms that produce their own food energy(green plants, algae)

15

Gross Primary Production

conversion of solar energy to the energy of chemical bonds in sugar by autotrophs. Autotrophs use a portion
of this production to power their own metabolism by respiration(intake of oxygen/release of CO2)

16

Net primary production

The energy remaining after respiration by autotrophs(NPP=GPP-respiration)

17

Biomass

Total mass of organic material of which living organisms are formed

18

Secondary Production

The biomass generated by heterotrophs due to the consumption of autotrophs

19

Nutrients

Elements & compounds needed for survival

20

MACRONutrients

required in relatively LARGE amounts(eg. nitrogen, phosphorus, carbon)

21

MICRONutrients

required in SMALL amounts (eg. zinc)

22

High net primary productivity

ecosystems whose plants rapidly convert solar energy to biomass

23

Ecotones

transitional zones between 2 systems in which elements of different ecosystems mix

24

Rate from largest to smallest: biome, landscape, ecosystem

Landscape, Ecosystem, Biome

25

Define Remote Sensing & GIS

Remote sensing: satellites, technologies that collect info about an object from a distance
GIS: Geographic information system, computer software used in landscape ecology research

26

Nutrient cycles

the movement of nutrients through ecosystems

27

Pools(reservoirs)

Where nutrients reside for varying amounts of time(residence time)

28

Flux

The movement of nutrients among pools

29

What is the difference between a POOL and a SINK?

a pool releases more nutrients than they accept, while a sink accepts more nutrients than they release

30

Turnover time

the amount of time it would take for all the atoms/particles of a material to be flushed through a reservoir