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Flashcards in Chapter 5: Species Deck (37)
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1

Resource Partitioning

When species divide shared resources by specializing in different ways(ex. one species is active in the daytime, another in the night)

2

Character Displacement

When species evolve physical characteristics that reflect their reliance on a resource they use(ex. bird that eat larger seeds adapt to have larger bills)

3

Competition

When multiple organisms seek the same limited resource

4

Amensalism

A type of competition where one species is harmed and another is unaffected

5

Competitive exclusion

When a species is a very effective competitor, so much so that they exclude other species from obtaining a certain resource

6

Symbiosis

Mutualism in which organisms live in close physical contact(plants and fungi)

7

Allelopathy

Plants release harmful chemicals

8

Fundamental Niche

The full niche of a species

9

Niche

ecological role

10

Realized Niche

An individual only part of its role because of the competition of other species

11

Coevolution

When a parasite and hosts evolve in response to one another

12

Commensalism

A relationship when one species benefits, and the other species is unaffected

13

Facilitations

Plants that create shade allowing seedlings to grow

14

Mutualism

A relationship in which two or more species benefit from each other

15

Trophic levels

Ranks in the feeding hierarchy

16

What is the first trophic level?

Producers

17

Energy inefficiency

The energy lost as you go higher up the food chain

18

Stromatolites

layered mounds, columns, and sheet-like sedimentary rocks in shallow water.

19

Succession

region undergoes a predictable series of change after a disturbance

20

Primary succession

Follows disturbance so severe that no vegetation or plant life remains, (clean slate) (glaciers, lava)

21

Secondary succession

begins when a disturbance dramatically alters
an existing community but does not destroy all living
things (fires, hurricanes)

22

Detritivores/decomposers

Organisms that consume only non-living organic matter

23

Pioneer species

The first species to arrive in a primary succession areaq

24

Lichens

mutualistic aggregates of fungi and algae; pioneers best suited to colonizing bare rock

25

invasive species

exotic organisms that spread widely in a community and dominate

26

ecological restoration

returning an area to earlier conditions

27

Biome

major regional complex of similar communities(plant type, vegetation)

28

TUNDRA Biome

DRY, extremely cold winters, few animals, lichens, low vegetation (Canada, Scandinavia, Russia)

29

BOREAL forest

Northern CON[E]-iferous forest, cool and dry climate, moose, wolves, bears (Canada, Alaska..)

30

Temperate Deciduous Forest

Lose their leaves each fall, remain dormant in the winter(ONTARIO)