Chapter 8: .Agriculture, Food, and Biotechnology Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 8: .Agriculture, Food, and Biotechnology Deck (27)
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1

Define: Cropland, Rangeland

land used to grow plants for human use, land used for grazing livestock

2

Around how long ago did agriculture first begin on earth?

About 10,000 yrs ago

3

Define: subsistence agriculture

when a family only grows enough food for themselves

4

Monoculture

vast fields of a single type of crop

5

What was the Green Revolution?

The increase in agricultural productivity during the mid- to late twentieth century

6

What is extensification?

Increasing resource productivity by bringing more land into production

7

What is intensification?

Increasing productivity per each unit of land

8

What were the positive effects of the Green Revolution? negative effects?

positive: prevent deforestation and habitat conversion
negative: pollution, salinization, erosion, desertification

9

What are drip irrigation systems?

These systems target water directly to plants, allowing more control over where water is aimed, and waste far less water than typical irrigation systems

10

Name the pros and cons of monoculture

Pros: more efficient, large expanse of single crop
Cons: devastates biodiversity, vulnerable to disease and pests

11

Define: Pesticides

poisons that target pest organisms

12

What is the Evolutionary Arms Race?

When chemists increase the chemical toxicity of pesticides to compete with resistant pests

13

What is Biocontrol?

Battling of pests with organisms that eat/infect them

14

Why is biocontrol not always a preferred method to pesticides?

The introduced organism may become a pest itself, removing a biocontrol organism is harder than stopping pesticide use

15

What is integrated pest management?

The usage of multiple techniques to suppress pests.

16

What is pollination?

The process by which male sex cells of a plant fertilize female sex cells of a plant.

17

What are the current main threats to pollinating insects?

landscape change in agricultural settings(loss of food source for bees)
growing use of pesticides
introduction of invasive plant species
pathogens and parasites
climate change(affects the range of pollinator species)

18

What is genetic engineering and recombinant DNA?

lab manipulation of genetic material,
DNA patched together from the DNA of multiple organisms

19

What is a GMO?

When the extra genes from the DNA of one organism are artificially transferred into the DNA of another

20

What is an organism that contains DNA from another species called

Transgenic

21

What is biotechnology?

The application of bio science to create products derived from organisms (ex. transgenic organisms, GMOs)

22

How is genetic engineering like traditional agricultural breeding? How is it different?

Same: both apply to plants and animals, alter gene pool
Different: traditional uses genes from same species, in traditional, genes come together on their own

23

What are the potential impacts of GMOs?

Impact to human health
resistance of pesticides
escaping transgenes can pollute ecosystems

24

What defines sustainable agriculture?

does not deplete soil, pollute water, or decrease genetic diversity

25

What is no till agriculture?

uses smaller amounts of pesticide, fertilizers, growth hormones, water, and fossil fuel energy than industrial agriculture

26

What is organic agriculture

Uses no synthetic fertilizers, insecticides, fungicides, or herbicides.. uses biological methods such as biocontrol

27

What is community supported agriculture?

When consumers pay farmers in advance for a share of their crop yields