Chapter 22 Review Sheet Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 22 Review Sheet Deck (44)
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1

Geocentric Theory

The Geocentric Theory is that the EARTH is the CENTER of the UNIVERSE. The church taught this - as did Aristotle.

2

Scientific Revolutions

began in the 1500s. Change in European thought; careful OBSERVATION.

3

Heliocentric Theory

Earth and other planets revolve around the sun

4

Scientific Method

The Scientific Method was a LOGICAL PROCEDURE used for gathering data and TESTING IDEAS.

5

Enlightenment

Stressed REASON & THOUGHT and power of individuals to SOLVE PROBLEMS.

6

Social Contract

Agreement by which people define and limit their individual rights and liberties. Creates an organized society / government

7

Philosophes

One of a group of social thinkers (France) during enlightenment.

8

Salon

Social gatherings where philosophers, writers, artists, scientists and other intellects gathered to discuss ideas.

9

Baroque

Style of art with grand ornate designs

10

Neoclassical

classical art influenced by greeks / romans; simple elegant style

11

Enlightened Despot

One of the 18th century European monarchs who was inspired by enlightenment ideas to rule justly and respect rights of subject.

12

Copernicus

Copernicus proposed the HELIOCENTRIC theory.
"On Revolution of the Heavenly Bodies" - He published his results late in his life because he was afraid of persecution from the church.

13

Kepler

Kepler was a MATHEMATICIAN who proved an ELLIPTICAL rotation of planets AROUND THE SUN.
*** "Laws of Planetary Motion" ***

14

Galileo

Galileo was an Italian SCIENTIST. He built a TELESCOPE and PROVED HELIOCENTRIC theory using observation. He was PERSECUTED by the church.
*** "Starry Messenger" ***

15

Sir Isaac Newton

Newton was an English SCIENTIST / LAW OF UNIVERSAL GRAVITATION. It stated that all objects affect each other. (The universe is like a giant clock.)
*** "Principles of Natural Philosophy" ***

16

Sir Francis Bacon

(1600s) - Bacon was an English STATESMAN and WRITER who LOVED SCIENCE. He urged scientists to USE THE SCIENTIFIC METHOD and not rely on old methods.

17

Descartes

Linked geometry and algebra with logic

18

Thomas Hobbes

believed all humans were naturally selfish and wicked. He gave up rights to a strong ruler

19

John Locke

English POLITICAL THINKER. He believed that the GOVERNMENT exists to PROTECT HUMAN RIGHTS. He believed people can improve and should govern themselves.

20

Voltaire

He believed in FREEDOM OF RELIGION & SPEECH. He was jailed for his comments.

21

Montesquieu

French POLITICAL THINKER. He believed in the SEPARATION OF STATE POWERS and CHECKS & BALANCES. His ideas were used widely in the Declaration of Independence.

22

Rousseau

French social thinker. He believed in INDIVIDUAL FREEDOM and thought that the NOBILITY should be abolished. He wrote "The Social Contract".

23

Wollstonecraft

English FEMALE SOCIAL THINKER. She believed and advocated for WOMEN's RIGHTS. She wrote "The Vindication of the Rights of a Woman"

24

Denis Diderot

created the encyclopedia

25

Fredrick the Great

Prussian King He was committed to REFORM

26

Joseph II

Austria / Holy Roman Empire = legal reforms / abolished serfdom

27

Catherine the Great

Russian ruler from 1762 to 1796. She was an ENLIGHTENED DESPOT - an absolute ruler. Port on Black Sea; expanded Russian territories

28

The role of the Renaissance and Reformation in the beginnings of the Scientific Revolution

The Renaissance and Reformation INTRODUCED the idea of being CURIOUS and QUESTIONING OLD IDEAS. Humanism (improving ones self) and debating were part of the Renaissance.

29

Importance of the printing press to the Scientific Revolution

The printing press was important to the Scientific Revolution because it allowed ideas to be spread so much more quickly. Instead of relying on word of mouth, printed materials could be distributed.

30

Differences between the geocentric and heliocentric theories

+++ Geo-centric means that the EARTH is in the CENTER. The rotation of SUN & PLANETS is in a perfect CIRCLE.
+++ Helio-centric means that the SUN is in the CENTER. The rotation of the EARTH & planets is in an ELLIPSE (oval).