Flashcards in Chapter 22 Review Sheet Deck (44)
The Geocentric Theory is that the EARTH is the CENTER of the UNIVERSE. The church taught this - as did Aristotle.
began in the 1500s. Change in European thought; careful OBSERVATION.
Earth and other planets revolve around the sun
The Scientific Method was a LOGICAL PROCEDURE used for gathering data and TESTING IDEAS.
Stressed REASON & THOUGHT and power of individuals to SOLVE PROBLEMS.
Agreement by which people define and limit their individual rights and liberties. Creates an organized society / government
One of a group of social thinkers (France) during enlightenment.
Social gatherings where philosophers, writers, artists, scientists and other intellects gathered to discuss ideas.
Style of art with grand ornate designs
classical art influenced by greeks / romans; simple elegant style
One of the 18th century European monarchs who was inspired by enlightenment ideas to rule justly and respect rights of subject.
Copernicus proposed the HELIOCENTRIC theory.
"On Revolution of the Heavenly Bodies" - He published his results late in his life because he was afraid of persecution from the church.
Kepler was a MATHEMATICIAN who proved an ELLIPTICAL rotation of planets AROUND THE SUN.
*** "Laws of Planetary Motion" ***
Galileo was an Italian SCIENTIST. He built a TELESCOPE and PROVED HELIOCENTRIC theory using observation. He was PERSECUTED by the church.
*** "Starry Messenger" ***
Sir Isaac Newton
Newton was an English SCIENTIST / LAW OF UNIVERSAL GRAVITATION. It stated that all objects affect each other. (The universe is like a giant clock.)
*** "Principles of Natural Philosophy" ***
Sir Francis Bacon
(1600s) - Bacon was an English STATESMAN and WRITER who LOVED SCIENCE. He urged scientists to USE THE SCIENTIFIC METHOD and not rely on old methods.
Linked geometry and algebra with logic
believed all humans were naturally selfish and wicked. He gave up rights to a strong ruler
English POLITICAL THINKER. He believed that the GOVERNMENT exists to PROTECT HUMAN RIGHTS. He believed people can improve and should govern themselves.
He believed in FREEDOM OF RELIGION & SPEECH. He was jailed for his comments.
French POLITICAL THINKER. He believed in the SEPARATION OF STATE POWERS and CHECKS & BALANCES. His ideas were used widely in the Declaration of Independence.
French social thinker. He believed in INDIVIDUAL FREEDOM and thought that the NOBILITY should be abolished. He wrote "The Social Contract".
English FEMALE SOCIAL THINKER. She believed and advocated for WOMEN's RIGHTS. She wrote "The Vindication of the Rights of a Woman"
created the encyclopedia
Fredrick the Great
Prussian King He was committed to REFORM
Austria / Holy Roman Empire = legal reforms / abolished serfdom
Catherine the Great
Russian ruler from 1762 to 1796. She was an ENLIGHTENED DESPOT - an absolute ruler. Port on Black Sea; expanded Russian territories
The role of the Renaissance and Reformation in the beginnings of the Scientific Revolution
The Renaissance and Reformation INTRODUCED the idea of being CURIOUS and QUESTIONING OLD IDEAS. Humanism (improving ones self) and debating were part of the Renaissance.
Importance of the printing press to the Scientific Revolution
The printing press was important to the Scientific Revolution because it allowed ideas to be spread so much more quickly. Instead of relying on word of mouth, printed materials could be distributed.