Chapter 22 Test Review Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 22 Test Review Deck (47):
1

Prior to the Scientific Revolution all of the following were considered "acceptable" sources of scientific knowledge EXCEPT: A. Classic Greek scientists like Aristotle B. The Catholic Church C. Astronomers like Copernicus and Galileo D. The Pope

C. Astronomers like Copernicus and Galileo

2

The belief that the earth was the center of the universe is ____ and was first challenged by the astronomer __________

geocentric, Copernicus

3

The astronomer who first developed the telescope was______

Galileo

4

Sir Francis Bacon and Rene Descartes are credited with developing the ______method of observation and problem-solving

scientific

5

The scientist who discovered/developed the laws of inertia and gravity was:

Newton

6

In Rousseau's work "The Social Contract" he proposed that people should:

establish a government by the consent of the governed

7

Which one of the following is NOT a lasting legacy of the Enlightenment? A. belief in progress B. Enlightened Despotism C. increased importance of the individual D. more securalism

D. more securalism

8

Which of the philosophy is INCORRECTLY matched to his/her idea/work A. John Locke & "Leviathan" B. Voltaire & freedom of speech C. Wollstonecraft & "Vindication of the Rights of Women" D. Montesquieu & "Spirit of Laws"

A. John Locke & "Leviathan"

9

Of the 5 core concepts of the philosophies, which one urged people to not wait until Heaven to achieve fulfillment?

Happiness

10

The city that became the unofficial center of the Enlightenment was

Paris

11

All of the following are true about "Encyclopedia" EXCEPT A. it contained essays about many subjects from many philosophes B. the printing press was essential in spreading its ideas C. it was first compiled by the philosopher Descartes D. it criticized French government and the Catholic Church

C. it was first compiled by the philosopher Descartes

12

During the Enlightenment the musical style of _______ was replaced by_______ composers like_______

baroque, classical, Beethoven

13

The enlightened despot who granted religious tolerance but WOULD NOT abolish serfdom was

Frederick the Great

14

The U.S. Constitution's separation of powers was inspired by the ideas of

Montesquieu

15

Voltaire's ideas of free speech and religious tolerance are guaranteed in the U.S. by the

Bill of Rights

16

Theory of an Earth centered universe

Geocentric

17

Concept of agreement between government and people

Social Contract

18

Pre-Enlightenment art/musical style

Baroque

19

Enlightenment gathering of discussion/debate

Salons

20

Theory of sun-centered universe

Heliocentric

21

Enlightenment style of music (Mozart)

Neoclassical

22

Process of experimentation and problem-solving

Scientific Method

23

The "thinkers" of the enlightenment period

Philosophes

24

Period of applying reason/logic to society

The Enlightenment

25

Rulers who made reforms to Enlightenment ideals

Enlightened Despots

26

Female czar to Russia, added new territory

Catherine the Great

27

Scientist placed under house arrest by the Catholic Church..

Galileo

28

Philosophe who promoted tolerance and free speech

Voltaire

29

First editor / creator of Encyclopedia

Denis Diderot

30

Philosopher who believed in 3 branches of government

Montesquieu

31

English thinker who believed in absolutism

Thomas hobbes

32

English Philosopher who promoted "natural rights"

John Locke

33

Ruler of Austria who abolished surfdom

Jseph II

34

Ruler of prussia who lessoned censorship

Frederick the great

35

Scientist who developed laws of gravity

Newton

36

True of False: The Renaissance played no role in the Scientific Revolution?

False

37

True or False: The heliocentric universe was promoted by the Catholic Church?

False

38

True or False: Galileo was forced to recant his statement in front of the Inquisition

True

39

True or False: Locke's natural rights were Life, Liberty and Property?

True

40

True or False: Copernicus, Rousseau and Galileo all studied the heliocentric theory

False

41

True or False: Montesquieu, Rousseau and Voltaire were French philosophes

False

42

True or False: Philosophers would gather at salons to discuss their ideas?

True

43

True of False: Frederick the Great of Prussia abolished serfdom

False

44

True or False: The US bill of rights guarantees free speech and religion

True

45

True or False: The constitution is a good example of Rousseau's concept of social contract

False

46

Map of Europe: 1740

Map of Europe: 1740

47

Essay #1: Explain why the Catholic Church was so resistant to the ideas of the Scientific Revolution. Why did they feel threatened, and what steps did they take to combat it? Finally how successful were they in their efforts?

Essay #2: What is the concept of "Enlightened Despotism"? Who were the enlightened despots of Europe? Pick one as an example and describe how she/he used enlightened principles to govern their country?