Chapter 20 Review Sheet Flashcards Preview

MWHS Modern World History 11 Heibert > Chapter 20 Review Sheet > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 20 Review Sheet Deck (49):
1

Colony

Land controlled by another nation

2

Conquistador

The Spanish soldiers, explorers, fortune tellers who conquered Americas in 16th century

3

Mestizo

A person of mixed Spanish and Native American ancestry

4

Encomienda

A grant of land made by Spanish to American settlers, included right to use Native Americans for forced labor

5

New France

French colony in North America. Lots of resources (timber/fur) available for trade

6

Pilgrims

Founded Plymouth in MA to escape religious persecution in 1620.

7

Puritans

sought freedom from religious persecution in England by founding colony in MA Bay in early 1600's

8

Atlantic Slave Trade

Buying, transporting, selling of Africans for work in Americas

9

Triangular Trade

Slaves and goods like rum and sugar were traded between Africa, Europe, Americas, England and West Indies.

10

Middle Passage

Voyage that brought Africans to West Indies and Americas for slaves. Unbearable conditions

11

Colombian Exchange

Global transfer of plants, animals and diseases that occurred during the European colonization of Americas

12

Capitalism

Based on private property, ownership, and profit

13

Joint-stock Company

a business where investors pool their wealth to grow the business and the share the profit. They also share the risks.

14

Mercantilism

National wealth = power = government. Sell goods back to the colony for more money even though the government used the colonies resources to make the goods.

15

Favorable Balance of Trade

Export / sell more than you import / buy

16

Christopher Columbus

Genease sea captain, searched for alternate route to Asia. Found Carribean

17

Ferdinand Magellan

Tried to sail around the world in 1519. Got killed. Thought he was in East India

18

Americo Vespucci

Italian. In service for Portugal. Traveled along the East coast of South America 1st to say that land was not Asia, but a new world named America after him.

19

Pedro Alvares Cabral

1500 - claimed Brazil for Portugal

20

Hernando Cortez

Conquistador. Landed in Mexico. Conquered Incas.

21

Montezuma II

Ruler of the Aztec Impire

22

Francisco Pizarro

conquered Incas

23

Atahualpa

Ruler of the Incas. Executed during Pizarro's conquest

24

Jaques Cartier

French explorer, discovered St. Lawrence River and Montreal for the French

25

Duke of York

Brother of Charles II --- Drove out the Dutch --- New York

26

King James I

King of England, gave permission for puritans and pilgrims to establish the new world

27

Metacom

aka King Phillip, war chief of the Riompanoag. Originally lived peacefully with the pilgrims eventually allowed himself to become subject of English in th1 1670's

28

Henry Hudson

Sailed to the Americas for the Dutch

29

Columbus and the beginnings of European exploration/colonization

Searching for a quicker route to the Caribbean. Inspired wave of exploration. Explorers set out and claimed land for King and Country.

30

The "3 G's" of Exploration

Glory, Gold, God

31

The age of discovery as a "spin off" of the Renaissance.

Secular / curiosity / Humanism

32

The conquest of the Aztec Empire

Cortes vs Montezuma

33

The conquest of the Incan Empire

Cortez vs Atahualpa

34

The role of disease and technology in Spain's conquest in the Americas

disease killed 96% of the natives

35

The "2nd wave" nations of exploration after the Spanish

English, French , and Dutch

36

French motivations / claims in North America

Not to build towns; trading posts /furs

37

Dutch motivations / claims in North America

Dutch West Indies Co. = expand trade

38

English motivations / claims in North America

colonization; send profits back to England

39

Importance of the French and Indian War / 7 Years War to North American claims.

England wins. Gain almost all of French's colony claims. Only Haiti remained French.

40

Impact of disease on native populations and its contribution to the Slave Trade

needed labor

41

Crops / resources that created demand for African slaves

tobacco / sugar / cotton

42

Major European slaving nations (suppliers and buyers)

England = suppliers; Spain and Portugal = buyers

43

The role of African tribes / leaders in the development of the Slave Trade

Many African rulers sold prisoners of war into slavery (Ashanti). Later some of the rulers protest the trade

44

Triangular Trade (how it worked, what went where?)

transport manufactured goods to west coast of Africa --captured Africans -- transported across the atlantic -- sold in West Indies -- goods to Europe. Also New England -- Africa.

45

The Middle passage (destinations, conditions)

Voyage that brought Africans to The West Indies and the Americas. The conditions were cruel and unbearable as many as 20% of Africans died on the journey.

46

Impact of the slave Trade on Africa and the Americans

The African slave trade was a massive factor in the building of the Americas and the decline of Africa.

47

The Columbian Exchange (products from Americas, impacts on the World)

global transfer of foods, plants, and animals during the colonization of the Americas

48

The "reverse flow" of products to the Americas and their effects

wheat, horses, cattle, and sheep

49

The development of Capitalism and Mercantilism as new economic systems

as wealth from the Americas grew, the way business was dide (trade) changed thru Europe. People started owning private property and making a profit. Increased demand raised prices.