Flashcards in Chapter 20 Review Sheet Deck (49):
Land controlled by another nation
The Spanish soldiers, explorers, fortune tellers who conquered Americas in 16th century
A person of mixed Spanish and Native American ancestry
A grant of land made by Spanish to American settlers, included right to use Native Americans for forced labor
French colony in North America. Lots of resources (timber/fur) available for trade
Founded Plymouth in MA to escape religious persecution in 1620.
sought freedom from religious persecution in England by founding colony in MA Bay in early 1600's
Atlantic Slave Trade
Buying, transporting, selling of Africans for work in Americas
Slaves and goods like rum and sugar were traded between Africa, Europe, Americas, England and West Indies.
Voyage that brought Africans to West Indies and Americas for slaves. Unbearable conditions
Global transfer of plants, animals and diseases that occurred during the European colonization of Americas
Based on private property, ownership, and profit
a business where investors pool their wealth to grow the business and the share the profit. They also share the risks.
National wealth = power = government. Sell goods back to the colony for more money even though the government used the colonies resources to make the goods.
Favorable Balance of Trade
Export / sell more than you import / buy
Genease sea captain, searched for alternate route to Asia. Found Carribean
Tried to sail around the world in 1519. Got killed. Thought he was in East India
Italian. In service for Portugal. Traveled along the East coast of South America 1st to say that land was not Asia, but a new world named America after him.
Pedro Alvares Cabral
1500 - claimed Brazil for Portugal
Conquistador. Landed in Mexico. Conquered Incas.
Ruler of the Aztec Impire
Ruler of the Incas. Executed during Pizarro's conquest
French explorer, discovered St. Lawrence River and Montreal for the French
Duke of York
Brother of Charles II --- Drove out the Dutch --- New York
King James I
King of England, gave permission for puritans and pilgrims to establish the new world
aka King Phillip, war chief of the Riompanoag. Originally lived peacefully with the pilgrims eventually allowed himself to become subject of English in th1 1670's
Sailed to the Americas for the Dutch
Columbus and the beginnings of European exploration/colonization
Searching for a quicker route to the Caribbean. Inspired wave of exploration. Explorers set out and claimed land for King and Country.
The "3 G's" of Exploration
Glory, Gold, God
The age of discovery as a "spin off" of the Renaissance.
Secular / curiosity / Humanism
The conquest of the Aztec Empire
Cortes vs Montezuma
The conquest of the Incan Empire
Cortez vs Atahualpa
The role of disease and technology in Spain's conquest in the Americas
disease killed 96% of the natives
The "2nd wave" nations of exploration after the Spanish
English, French , and Dutch
French motivations / claims in North America
Not to build towns; trading posts /furs
Dutch motivations / claims in North America
Dutch West Indies Co. = expand trade
English motivations / claims in North America
colonization; send profits back to England
Importance of the French and Indian War / 7 Years War to North American claims.
England wins. Gain almost all of French's colony claims. Only Haiti remained French.
Impact of disease on native populations and its contribution to the Slave Trade
Crops / resources that created demand for African slaves
tobacco / sugar / cotton
Major European slaving nations (suppliers and buyers)
England = suppliers; Spain and Portugal = buyers
The role of African tribes / leaders in the development of the Slave Trade
Many African rulers sold prisoners of war into slavery (Ashanti). Later some of the rulers protest the trade
Triangular Trade (how it worked, what went where?)
transport manufactured goods to west coast of Africa --captured Africans -- transported across the atlantic -- sold in West Indies -- goods to Europe. Also New England -- Africa.
The Middle passage (destinations, conditions)
Voyage that brought Africans to The West Indies and the Americas. The conditions were cruel and unbearable as many as 20% of Africans died on the journey.
Impact of the slave Trade on Africa and the Americans
The African slave trade was a massive factor in the building of the Americas and the decline of Africa.
The Columbian Exchange (products from Americas, impacts on the World)
global transfer of foods, plants, and animals during the colonization of the Americas
The "reverse flow" of products to the Americas and their effects
wheat, horses, cattle, and sheep