Chapter 21 Review sheet Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 21 Review sheet Deck (46):
1

Absolutism

Absolutism is the idea of:
COMPLETE & UNRESTRICTED power of the government (king or queen).

2

Divine Right

Divine Right is the idea that:
GOD CREATED the monarch (King or Queen) to be GOD's REPRESENTATIVE on Earth. The monarch only has to answer to GOD.

3

Edict of Nantes

The Edict of Nantes was a document of RELIGIOUS TOLERANCE towards the Huguenots signed by KING HENRY

4

Intendants

Intendants are GOVERNMENT AGENTS of the FRENCH government who collected taxes and administered justice

5

Huguenots

The Huguenots are French Protestants (non-Catholics that follow the teachings of Martin Luther).

6

Thirty Years War

The 30 years war was a conflict over RELIGION and TERRITORY. Power for the European ruling families

7

Seven Years War

The Seven Years War was a conflict between the major Europe, North America and India.

8

Junkers

The Junkers were LAND OWNING NOBILITY that resisted the King's power in PRUSSIA. ***Given right to be officers in King Fredrick's army. ***

9

Boyar

The Boyars were Russia's LAND OWNING NOBLES, Forced to live in St. Petersburg

10

Czar

Czar means "Caesar" - A Czar is a RUSSIAN RULER.

11

Westernization

Using WESTERN EUROPE as a MODEL FOR CHANGE both MILITARILY and COMMERCIALLY.

12

Charles V

controlled Spain, Spanish American Colonies, Austria, Netherlands

13

Philip II

SON of Charles V, built up Armada, fought against Great Britain

14

Elizabeth I

The QUEEN OF ENGLAND (1580s) and a PROTESTANT. Defeated Armada

15

Sir Francis Drake

Pirate, stole from spanish ships, knighted by Queen Elizabeth.

16

Miguel Cervantes

AUTHOR of DON QUIXOTE, mocking chivalry, materalism

17

Rembrandt

GREAT DUTCH ARTIST in the 1600s using SHARP LIGHT and SHADOW CONTRASTS.
**Night Watch is a famous portrait**

18

Catherine de Medici

Widow of King Henry II. After Henry II's death, she was the REAL LEADER of FRANCE when her son's were king.

19

Henry IV

He was 1st king of BOURBON DYNASTY. Descended from Louis IX.
*****CONVERTED to Catholicism & signed EDICT OF NANTES ***

20

Cardinal Richelieu

Louis XIII's minister; actual ruler

21

Louis XIV

Sun King; helped France attain economic / political / cultural brilliance

22

Cardinal Mazarin

Cardinal Mazarin is credited with ENDING THE 30 YEAR WAR. Louis XIV's

23

Jean Baptiste Colbert

Louis XVI's minister of finance = responsible for debt.

24

Gustavus Aldophus

Swedish leader who drove Hapsburg armies out of North Germany

25

Charles VI

Hapsburg's ruler; no male heirs

26

Maria Theresa

Daughter of Charles VI; ruler of Austria

27

Fredrick the Great

Ruler of Prussia; encouraged religious tolerance and legal reform

28

Ivan the Terrible

First official "czar"

29

Peter the Great

One of Russia's greatest reformers; increased czar's power...

30

The extent of Spain's European and Overseas Empire in the 1500s.

Spain had a HUGE OVERSEAS EMPIRE under Charles V - colonized much territory (New World) with help of Cortes and conquistadors.
Rich. Gained Portugal territory

31

Philip II's rivalry with England and the launching of the Armada.

Phillip II HATED ENGLAND
1) Queen Elizabeth refused his proposal.
2) England was Protestant. Philip II (Spain) was Catholic.
3) Queen Elizabeth praised pirates for pillaging Phillips ships.
Phillip II built HUGE NAVY
1) 130 ships/27,000 men
2) Ships had priests to convert prisoners to Catholicism.
ATTACKED England - LOST!

32

Spain's GOLDEN AGE of Art and Literature

Spain had great wealth in the GOLDEN AGE. Rich monarchs & nobles became patrons of the arts.
***El Greco was a famous artist and painted Catholic Images
**Velazquez painted wealthy families.
***Rembrandt painted with shadows & light
***Cervantes wrote DON QUIXOTE

33

Role of inflation, taxes, enemies and the and the Dutch in the decline of Spain

**Spain was so wealthy that money lost it's value.
**Spain expelled Jews and Muslims and eliminated many of the good tax payers (eliminating income for state).
**Spain's enemies got rich because citizens bought goods from France, England & Dutch to get better prices.
**Dutch Calvinists left and declared independence.
**Spain went broke fighting too many wars.

34

Importance of the Dutch East India Co. to their economic success.

**The Dutch East India Company bought goods for low $$ and sold them in needy areas for high $$.
**They had the largest fleet of ships in the world.
**Controlled by Dutch Government
**Gradually Dutch controlled Italians as the bankers of Europe.

35

Religious turmoil in France between Catholics and Huguenots

v

36

Henry IV and his conversion to Catholicism

He reportedly declared "Paris is well worth a mass"

37

Importance of the Edict of Nantes

Declaration of religious tolerance by Henry I

38

Cardinal Richelieu and his actions to increase royal authority.

First, he moved against the Huguenots; Second he sought to weaken the nobles' power

39

Louis XIV and absolutism "I am the State"

In Louis's view, he and the state were on of the same.

40

Louis revoking the Edict of Nantes

In response thousands of Huguenots fled the country; tis robed France of many skilled workers

41

The palace of Versailles and court life of Louis and his nobles

?

42

Mistakes / negative effects of Louis' rule over France

Bad tax system, constant warfare, construction of the palace of Versailles (lots of debt). resentment over the tax burden, Louis' abuse of power would plague his heirs

43

Causes phases and results of the 30 years war

30 years war was a conflict over religion/territory and for power among European ruling families. The phases were the success and defeats of Hapsburg. the result was the agreement "Treaty of Westphalia"

44

Consequences of the Treaty of Westphalia

1. Weakened Hapsburg states of Spain and Austria
2. Strengthened France by awarding it German Territory
3. Made German princes dependent of the Holy Roman Empire
4. ended religious wars in Europe
5. introduced a new method of peace negotiation whereby all participants meet to settle the problems of a war and decide the terms of peace

45

Rivalry between Austria and Prussia over Silesia.

?

46

Winners and losers of the 7 years war

The winners were the British who gained French North American colonies and gained sole control of India.