Flashcards in Chapter 21 Review sheet Deck (46):
Absolutism is the idea of:
COMPLETE & UNRESTRICTED power of the government (king or queen).
Divine Right is the idea that:
GOD CREATED the monarch (King or Queen) to be GOD's REPRESENTATIVE on Earth. The monarch only has to answer to GOD.
Edict of Nantes
The Edict of Nantes was a document of RELIGIOUS TOLERANCE towards the Huguenots signed by KING HENRY
Intendants are GOVERNMENT AGENTS of the FRENCH government who collected taxes and administered justice
The Huguenots are French Protestants (non-Catholics that follow the teachings of Martin Luther).
Thirty Years War
The 30 years war was a conflict over RELIGION and TERRITORY. Power for the European ruling families
Seven Years War
The Seven Years War was a conflict between the major Europe, North America and India.
The Junkers were LAND OWNING NOBILITY that resisted the King's power in PRUSSIA. ***Given right to be officers in King Fredrick's army. ***
The Boyars were Russia's LAND OWNING NOBLES, Forced to live in St. Petersburg
Czar means "Caesar" - A Czar is a RUSSIAN RULER.
Using WESTERN EUROPE as a MODEL FOR CHANGE both MILITARILY and COMMERCIALLY.
controlled Spain, Spanish American Colonies, Austria, Netherlands
SON of Charles V, built up Armada, fought against Great Britain
The QUEEN OF ENGLAND (1580s) and a PROTESTANT. Defeated Armada
Sir Francis Drake
Pirate, stole from spanish ships, knighted by Queen Elizabeth.
AUTHOR of DON QUIXOTE, mocking chivalry, materalism
GREAT DUTCH ARTIST in the 1600s using SHARP LIGHT and SHADOW CONTRASTS.
**Night Watch is a famous portrait**
Catherine de Medici
Widow of King Henry II. After Henry II's death, she was the REAL LEADER of FRANCE when her son's were king.
He was 1st king of BOURBON DYNASTY. Descended from Louis IX.
*****CONVERTED to Catholicism & signed EDICT OF NANTES ***
Louis XIII's minister; actual ruler
Sun King; helped France attain economic / political / cultural brilliance
Cardinal Mazarin is credited with ENDING THE 30 YEAR WAR. Louis XIV's
Jean Baptiste Colbert
Louis XVI's minister of finance = responsible for debt.
Swedish leader who drove Hapsburg armies out of North Germany
Hapsburg's ruler; no male heirs
Daughter of Charles VI; ruler of Austria
Fredrick the Great
Ruler of Prussia; encouraged religious tolerance and legal reform
Ivan the Terrible
First official "czar"
Peter the Great
One of Russia's greatest reformers; increased czar's power...
The extent of Spain's European and Overseas Empire in the 1500s.
Spain had a HUGE OVERSEAS EMPIRE under Charles V - colonized much territory (New World) with help of Cortes and conquistadors.
Rich. Gained Portugal territory
Philip II's rivalry with England and the launching of the Armada.
Phillip II HATED ENGLAND
1) Queen Elizabeth refused his proposal.
2) England was Protestant. Philip II (Spain) was Catholic.
3) Queen Elizabeth praised pirates for pillaging Phillips ships.
Phillip II built HUGE NAVY
1) 130 ships/27,000 men
2) Ships had priests to convert prisoners to Catholicism.
ATTACKED England - LOST!
Spain's GOLDEN AGE of Art and Literature
Spain had great wealth in the GOLDEN AGE. Rich monarchs & nobles became patrons of the arts.
***El Greco was a famous artist and painted Catholic Images
**Velazquez painted wealthy families.
***Rembrandt painted with shadows & light
***Cervantes wrote DON QUIXOTE
Role of inflation, taxes, enemies and the and the Dutch in the decline of Spain
**Spain was so wealthy that money lost it's value.
**Spain expelled Jews and Muslims and eliminated many of the good tax payers (eliminating income for state).
**Spain's enemies got rich because citizens bought goods from France, England & Dutch to get better prices.
**Dutch Calvinists left and declared independence.
**Spain went broke fighting too many wars.
Importance of the Dutch East India Co. to their economic success.
**The Dutch East India Company bought goods for low $$ and sold them in needy areas for high $$.
**They had the largest fleet of ships in the world.
**Controlled by Dutch Government
**Gradually Dutch controlled Italians as the bankers of Europe.
Religious turmoil in France between Catholics and Huguenots
Henry IV and his conversion to Catholicism
He reportedly declared "Paris is well worth a mass"
Importance of the Edict of Nantes
Declaration of religious tolerance by Henry I
Cardinal Richelieu and his actions to increase royal authority.
First, he moved against the Huguenots; Second he sought to weaken the nobles' power
Louis XIV and absolutism "I am the State"
In Louis's view, he and the state were on of the same.
Louis revoking the Edict of Nantes
In response thousands of Huguenots fled the country; tis robed France of many skilled workers
The palace of Versailles and court life of Louis and his nobles
Mistakes / negative effects of Louis' rule over France
Bad tax system, constant warfare, construction of the palace of Versailles (lots of debt). resentment over the tax burden, Louis' abuse of power would plague his heirs
Causes phases and results of the 30 years war
30 years war was a conflict over religion/territory and for power among European ruling families. The phases were the success and defeats of Hapsburg. the result was the agreement "Treaty of Westphalia"
Consequences of the Treaty of Westphalia
1. Weakened Hapsburg states of Spain and Austria
2. Strengthened France by awarding it German Territory
3. Made German princes dependent of the Holy Roman Empire
4. ended religious wars in Europe
5. introduced a new method of peace negotiation whereby all participants meet to settle the problems of a war and decide the terms of peace
Rivalry between Austria and Prussia over Silesia.