Chapter 25 Review sheet Flashcards Preview

MWHS Modern World History 11 Heibert > Chapter 25 Review sheet > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 25 Review sheet Deck (46):
1

Industrial Revolution

Mid-1700s. Output of machine made goods. It began in England.

2

Enclosures

Larger fields > productive seeding / harvesting methods improved

3

Crop Rotation

three field system, build up nutrients

4

Industrialization

Industrialization refers to the process of using machines in the production of goods.

5

Factors of Production

Land, labor, and capital ($). Resources needed to produce goods & services.

6

Factories

Buildings equipped with machines that are used for production

7

Entrepreneur

An entrepreneur is a person who organizes, manages, and takes the risk of owning a business.

8

Cottage Industry

Goods were made by hand in homes

9

Urbanization

A time of rapid movement of people to the cities.

10

Middle Class

Social class (Bourgeoisie) made up of skilled workers.

11

Stock

A right of ownership to a publicly owned corporation or business.

12

Corporation

A business owned by stockholders who share in its profits but are not personally responsible for its debts.

13

Laissez-Faire

An economic policy (theory) stressing an unregulated free market. "Let Do" "Let people do as they please."
ADAM SMITH

14

Capitalism

Factors of production, privately owned

15

Socialism

Factors of production are operated for the good of all

16

Utilitarianism

Usefulness; good for the greatest number of people.

17

Communism

Government controls everything

18

Union

Association of workers formed to improve working conditions / pay.

19

Strike

A refuse to work until demands are met

20

John Kay

1733 - flying shuttle

21

James Hargreaves

1764 - spinning wheel / jenny

22

Richard Arkwright

1769 - Water frame

23

Samuel Crompton

1779 - Spinning Mule, which combined the Spinning Jenny and the Water Frame. Stronger thread

24

Edmund Cartwright

1787 - power loom which was run by water and did the fastest weaving of it's time.

25

Elizabeth Gaskell

(1810-1865) Gaskell wrote "Mary Barton" - sympathized with the working class

26

Elizabeth Bentley

1832 Testified before the British Parliament - deformed at 23 years old

27

John D. Rockefeller

Founded Standard Oil

28

Andrew Carnegie

Founded Carnegie Steel

29

Adam Smith

Wealth of Nations - law of self interest - law of competition - law of supply and demand

30

John Stuart Mill

questioned unregulated capitalism

31

Robert Owen

British factory owner, improved working conditions

32

Karl Marx

Wrote "The Communist Manifesto". (father of socialism)

33

Cottage Industry vs. Machine Driven Industry

Cottage Industries were run out of an individuals home.
Machine Driven Industries were run out of a factory.

34

Improvements in agriculture that led to the Industrial Revolution.

Agricultural improvements that led to the Industrial Revolution were:
+++ Enclosures (fenced in farm land)
+++ Crop Rotation
+++ Better livestock breeding

35

Reasons why the Industrial Revolution began in Britain.

Britain was a perfect place for the Industrial Revolution to begin. Britain had these things:
+++ Water (rivers) and Coal to power new machines.
+++ Iron ore for manufacturing tools & machines.
+++ Rivers for transporting goods across the country.
+++ Harbors for sailing merchant ships to enter and leave from.

36

Cycle of invention: the textile industry.

more raw materials - more workers - more products - more wages - need for more products

37

Steam: revolutionizing transportation

Steam made these things possible:
+++ transporting materials & finished product
+++ transporting fish & farm products
+++ travel for people for jobs (like miners)
+++ new jobs for people to build railroads

38

"Mixed Blessing" of the Industrial Revolution

positives negatives
-free public schools -water/air pollution
-extra money to spend -waste/sewage
-child labor outlawed -land torn up

39

Working & Living conditions for industrial laborers.

-breathe in cotton dust -houses with broken
-unsafe machinery windows patched w/rags
-badly lit factories -2-3 families per house
-no shoes -garbage emptied in streets
-no schools

40

Positive and Long-Term effects of the Industrial Revolution

positive long-term
-healthier diets -affordable goods
-better housing -living/working conditions
-raised standard of living improved
-provided hope/improvement -profits reduced tax revenue
-standard of living

41

Obstacles to industrial progress in continental Europe

Some of the obstacles to industrialization across continental Europe were:
Germany - Political, economic barriers,
France - Revolutions & Napoleonic Wars
US - Civil War
-halted trade / interrupted communication

42

Spread of Industrialization across Continental Europe

Belgium = took ideas from Britain
-favorable geography
-financial systems
-political stability
-natural resources

43

Adam Smith's 3 Laws of Capitalism

Adam Smith wrote the book "The Wealth of Nations". He said that there are 3 laws of capitalism which are:
Law of Self - people work for own good
Law of Competition - makes products better
Law of Supply/Demand - goods produced will meet market demand at lowest possible price to meet demand

44

Types of socialism: Utilitarianism, Utopian, & Socialism

Utilitarianism:
-worth what you can do
-equal division of profits
Utopian:
-perfect harmony
Socialism:
-no classes
-all factories owned by government

45

Major reforms of the Factory Acts

1833 - illegal to hire children under 9 years old
- children 9-12 could not work more than 8 hr/day
1842 -women/children allowed to work underground.
1847 -women and children can work no more than 10 hrs/day.

46

Effects of the Industrial Revolution on the Slave Trade and Women's Rights.

1833 -slavery end in British Empire
1865 -slavery ends in the US
1848 -women start pursuing social rights
1888 -International Council for Women