Chapter 24: Respiratory System Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 24: Respiratory System Deck (46):
1

what does the respiratory system consist of?

1.) Upper respiratory system
Nose, nasal cavity, sinuses, & pharynx
Filter, warm, & humidify air and bring it to and from the…
2.) Lower respiratory system
Larynx, trachea, bronchi, bronchioles, &
Alveoli – gas exchange surface

2

what are the functions of the respiratory system?

Extensive area for gas exchange
Move air to and from exchange surface
Protect exchange surfaces from damage
-dehydration, temperature, pathogens, etc.
Produce vocalization
Regulate blood volume, pH, pressure, etc.

3

slides 4 and 5

idk wtf that is

4

what are the parts of the external nose? (3)

1.) Cartilage
-lateral nasal
-major and minor alar
2.) Nasal bone
3.) External nares
-a.k.a. nostrils

5

the external nose encloses the_________ which is protected by________.

nasal vestibule; hairs;

6

The nasal vestibule opens into the __________ and is divided by the ____________

nasal cavity; nasal septum

7

describe the nasal cavity

-Starts at nasal vestibule and ends at internal nares
-Divided in two by the nasal septum
(Ethmoid, vomer, septal cartilage)
-Separated from oral cavity
(Hard palate/palatine and maxilla and Soft palate)
-Mucus membrane lining

8

describe the olfactory region of the nasal cavity

-Superior region
-All areas with olfactory receptors
-Cribiform plate, superior nasal conchae, superior septum

9

describe the conchae region of the nasal cavity

-Three projections of bone on each side
(Superior/middle/inferior)
-Ethmoid and inferior nasal concha bone

10

Grooves in between conchae are called what?

meatuses

11

what are the functions of conchae?

Divide cavity into passages
Support mucous membranes
Increase surface area
Increase turbulence
(Filters out airborne particles)

12

what are sinuses?

Air-filled sacs within cranial bones
(Maxilla, frontal, ethmoid, sphenoid)
They are lined with mucous membranes

13

sinuses open into____

nasal cavity

14

what are the functions of sinuses?

Decrease weight of skull
Produce mucus
Resonant chambers

15

the shared passageway for respiratory & digestive system is known as what?

the throat

16

what are the three pharynges? describe where they are

Nasopharynx
-above uvula & posterior to internal nares
Oropharynx
-portion visible in a mirror
Larynopharynx
-between hyoid & esophagus

17

what are the functions of the pharynx/throat?

passage for food
passage for air
sound production

18

what are the four layers of the respiratory tree?

1.) Mucosa
goblet cells in pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium
2.) Submucosa
areolar CT + serous & mucous glands
3.) Hyaline cartilage
4.) Trachealis muscle
transverse & longitudinal smooth muscle
More muscle as one moves closer to the lungs

19

what is the larynx?

an enlargement in airway at top of trachea & below pharynx

20

what does the larynx do? (3)

-routes air & food to proper channels
-surrounds & protects glottis
(opening into larynx)
-houses vocal cords

21

the composition of the larynx is made up of what?

muscles & cartilage held together by elastic tissue

22

what are the cartilages of the larynx? describe

Thyroid: Adam’s apple
Cricoid: supports posterior larynx
Arytenoid, corniculate, and cuneiform: attach and control vocal cords
Epiglottis: projects into pharynx and covers glottis during swallowing

23

folds in mucous membrane are known as what?

vocal folds

24

describe Vestibular folds

false’ vocal cords
no sound production
muscles help close larynx during swallowing

25

describe vocal folds

True’ vocal cords
cause sound production

26

describe how speaking occurs

-Air pushed past vocal folds causes vibrations
-pitch controlled by changing tension of cords
-Tight = high
-volume related to force of air over cords
-More force = loud
-oral cavity, lips & tongue change sound

27

what is the trachea?

a flexible tube that connects the larynx with the bronchi

28

describe the composition of the trachea

inner wall
-ciliated mucous membrane with goblet cells
-beat continuously
-expel mucous loaded with debris
-20 C-shaped pieces of hyaline cartilage

29

what are the functions of the trachea? (3)

-Filter and direct incoming air
-Cartilage rings prevent collapsing (but are still flexible)
-Soft tissue in back allows esophagus to expand

30

the bronchi split at the _____

carina

31

bronchi enter the lungs at the______

hilus

32

bronchi subdivide into smaller & smaller branches. what are these branches?

Primary
Secondary
Tertiary
Bronchioles

33

how is the right bronchus different from the left?

-Is wider, shorter & straighter
-Divides into three parts; one for each lobe (left only has two)
-The superior one divides very early

34

describe bronchioles

Tertiary bronchi branch many times
Eventually form 6500 terminal bronchioles
Smooth muscle dominant and little cartilage
-Bronchodialation (SNS)
-Bronchoconstriction (PSNS)
Terminal bronchioles branch into respriatory lobules
-50-80 per lobule
-Branch into alveolar ducts

35

______________ lead to ___________ which contain several alveoli

Alveolar ducts; Alveolar Sacs

36

describe alveoli (3)

150 million per lung
Each associated with a network of capillaries
Abundance of elastic fibers

37

what do alveolus consist of?

Pneumocyte Type I cells
Pneumocyte Type 2 cells
Basal lamina
Capillary network
Connective tissue
-Fibroblasts -->elastic & reticular fibers
-Macrophages -->phagocytosis

38

describe Pneumocyte Type 1 cells

Simple squamous epithelium for gas exchange
moist lining aids diffusion across respiratory membrane

39

describe Pneumocyte Type 2 cells

No gas exchange
Secrete pulmonary surfactant
-Fluid will a lower cohesive force than water
-Alveolar walls don’t stick to each other
-Prevents collapse of alveoli

40

what membranes surround the lungs? whats inbetween?

Parietal pleura
Visceral pleura
Pleural cavity in between

41

describe the structure of the lungs

Apex and base
Hilus (all vessels and bronchi enter here)
Lobes
-Left = 2 lobes
-Right = 3 lobes
-Fissures separate
Lobes divide into lobules

42

how does breathing work?

-depends on volume changes in thoracic cavity
-volume change leads to pressure change
-when pressure changes, gases flow in to equalize pressure

43

what are the two phases in breathing?

inspiration
expiration

44

describe inspiration and what occurs in the lungs (6)

-diaphragm & external intercostals muscles contract
-Thoracic cavity expands
-Pressure in pleural cavity ↓
-Lungs expand into lower pressure area
-Pressure in lungs ↓
-Air moves into lungs to equalize pressure

45

describe expiration (8)

-a passive process
-muscles relax
-Recoil shrinks thoracic cavity
-Pressure in pleural cavity ↑
-Lungs are compressed
-Pressure in lungs ↑
-Air moves out to equalize pressure
-This is known as tidal expiration

46

describe forced expiration (6)

-Internal intercostals, external obliques, & abdominal recti muscles contract
-Further shrinks thoracic cavity
-Pressure in pleural cavity ↑ ↑
-Lungs are compressed
-Pressure in lungs ↑ ↑
-Air moves out to equalize pressure