Flashcards in Chapter 24: Respiratory System Deck (46):
what does the respiratory system consist of?
1.) Upper respiratory system
Nose, nasal cavity, sinuses, & pharynx
Filter, warm, & humidify air and bring it to and from the…
2.) Lower respiratory system
Larynx, trachea, bronchi, bronchioles, &
Alveoli – gas exchange surface
what are the functions of the respiratory system?
Extensive area for gas exchange
Move air to and from exchange surface
Protect exchange surfaces from damage
-dehydration, temperature, pathogens, etc.
Regulate blood volume, pH, pressure, etc.
slides 4 and 5
idk wtf that is
what are the parts of the external nose? (3)
-major and minor alar
2.) Nasal bone
3.) External nares
the external nose encloses the_________ which is protected by________.
nasal vestibule; hairs;
The nasal vestibule opens into the __________ and is divided by the ____________
nasal cavity; nasal septum
describe the nasal cavity
-Starts at nasal vestibule and ends at internal nares
-Divided in two by the nasal septum
(Ethmoid, vomer, septal cartilage)
-Separated from oral cavity
(Hard palate/palatine and maxilla and Soft palate)
-Mucus membrane lining
describe the olfactory region of the nasal cavity
-All areas with olfactory receptors
-Cribiform plate, superior nasal conchae, superior septum
describe the conchae region of the nasal cavity
-Three projections of bone on each side
-Ethmoid and inferior nasal concha bone
Grooves in between conchae are called what?
what are the functions of conchae?
Divide cavity into passages
Support mucous membranes
Increase surface area
(Filters out airborne particles)
what are sinuses?
Air-filled sacs within cranial bones
(Maxilla, frontal, ethmoid, sphenoid)
They are lined with mucous membranes
sinuses open into____
what are the functions of sinuses?
Decrease weight of skull
the shared passageway for respiratory & digestive system is known as what?
what are the three pharynges? describe where they are
-above uvula & posterior to internal nares
-portion visible in a mirror
-between hyoid & esophagus
what are the functions of the pharynx/throat?
passage for food
passage for air
what are the four layers of the respiratory tree?
goblet cells in pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium
areolar CT + serous & mucous glands
3.) Hyaline cartilage
4.) Trachealis muscle
transverse & longitudinal smooth muscle
More muscle as one moves closer to the lungs
what is the larynx?
an enlargement in airway at top of trachea & below pharynx
what does the larynx do? (3)
-routes air & food to proper channels
-surrounds & protects glottis
(opening into larynx)
-houses vocal cords
the composition of the larynx is made up of what?
muscles & cartilage held together by elastic tissue
what are the cartilages of the larynx? describe
Thyroid: Adam’s apple
Cricoid: supports posterior larynx
Arytenoid, corniculate, and cuneiform: attach and control vocal cords
Epiglottis: projects into pharynx and covers glottis during swallowing
folds in mucous membrane are known as what?
describe Vestibular folds
false’ vocal cords
no sound production
muscles help close larynx during swallowing
describe vocal folds
True’ vocal cords
cause sound production
describe how speaking occurs
-Air pushed past vocal folds causes vibrations
-pitch controlled by changing tension of cords
-Tight = high
-volume related to force of air over cords
-More force = loud
-oral cavity, lips & tongue change sound
what is the trachea?
a flexible tube that connects the larynx with the bronchi
describe the composition of the trachea
-ciliated mucous membrane with goblet cells
-expel mucous loaded with debris
-20 C-shaped pieces of hyaline cartilage
what are the functions of the trachea? (3)
-Filter and direct incoming air
-Cartilage rings prevent collapsing (but are still flexible)
-Soft tissue in back allows esophagus to expand
the bronchi split at the _____
bronchi enter the lungs at the______
bronchi subdivide into smaller & smaller branches. what are these branches?
how is the right bronchus different from the left?
-Is wider, shorter & straighter
-Divides into three parts; one for each lobe (left only has two)
-The superior one divides very early
Tertiary bronchi branch many times
Eventually form 6500 terminal bronchioles
Smooth muscle dominant and little cartilage
Terminal bronchioles branch into respriatory lobules
-50-80 per lobule
-Branch into alveolar ducts
______________ lead to ___________ which contain several alveoli
Alveolar ducts; Alveolar Sacs
describe alveoli (3)
150 million per lung
Each associated with a network of capillaries
Abundance of elastic fibers
what do alveolus consist of?
Pneumocyte Type I cells
Pneumocyte Type 2 cells
-Fibroblasts -->elastic & reticular fibers
describe Pneumocyte Type 1 cells
Simple squamous epithelium for gas exchange
moist lining aids diffusion across respiratory membrane
describe Pneumocyte Type 2 cells
No gas exchange
Secrete pulmonary surfactant
-Fluid will a lower cohesive force than water
-Alveolar walls don’t stick to each other
-Prevents collapse of alveoli
what membranes surround the lungs? whats inbetween?
Pleural cavity in between
describe the structure of the lungs
Apex and base
Hilus (all vessels and bronchi enter here)
-Left = 2 lobes
-Right = 3 lobes
Lobes divide into lobules
how does breathing work?
-depends on volume changes in thoracic cavity
-volume change leads to pressure change
-when pressure changes, gases flow in to equalize pressure
what are the two phases in breathing?
describe inspiration and what occurs in the lungs (6)
-diaphragm & external intercostals muscles contract
-Thoracic cavity expands
-Pressure in pleural cavity ↓
-Lungs expand into lower pressure area
-Pressure in lungs ↓
-Air moves into lungs to equalize pressure
describe expiration (8)
-a passive process
-Recoil shrinks thoracic cavity
-Pressure in pleural cavity ↑
-Lungs are compressed
-Pressure in lungs ↑
-Air moves out to equalize pressure
-This is known as tidal expiration