Chapter 28: Lymphatic System Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 28: Lymphatic System Deck (49):
1

What are the functions of the lymphatic system?

1.) Produce, maintain, and distribute lymphocytes
2.) Maintain normal blood and interstitial fluid volume
3.) Alternate route for the transport of materials
-Nutrients
-Hormones
-Waste

2

lymphatic vessels transport fluid called ______ from tissues to the _______

lympth; venous system

3

lymphatic vessels can range in size... give some examples (4)

Small lymphatic capillaries
Medium lymphatic vessels
Large lymphatic trunks
Lymphatic ducts

4

lymphatic vessels are almost always found associated with _________

blood vessels

5

lymphatic vessels are found where?
absent where?

Found in most tissues
Absent in avascular tissue and the CNS

6

what is lymph?

Lymph is a fluid connective tissue
It occurs ONLY in the lymphatic vessels

7

what is lymph derived from?

Interstitial fluid of the tissues
Lymphocytes
Macrophages

8

Slide 6

:)

9

describe lymphatic capillaries (5)

-Closed ended tubes
-In interstitial spaces
-Form networks
-Single layer of squamous cells with incomplete basal lamina
-fenestrated

10

How are lymphatic capillaries different from blood capillaries? (5)

-Larger diameter
-Thinner walls
-Flat and irregular
-Have anchoring filaments to keep the passage open
-Overlapping endothelial cells

11

describe the formation of lymph

Interstitial fluid enters capillaries
-Overlapping cells function as one way valves
-Moves through fenestrations
-Large things such as viruses and debris follow

12

describe medium lymphatic vessels

Merging of lymph capillaries
Similar to veins
-Interna
-Media
-Adventitia
-Valves
Merge to form trunks
Travel with arteries of same size

13

__________ are named for the _______
examples?

Lymphatic Trunks, region they drain
Ex. Lumbar, Intestinal, Broncomediastinal, Subclavian, Jugular

14

____ drain into _______

Trunks; Ducts

15

what are the two lymphatic ducts?

thoracic and right lymphatic

16

What do lymphatic ducts do?

Deliver lymph to venous circulation at subclavians
-Reintroduced to bloodstream
-Becomes part of plasma and is circulated

17

where does the thoracic duct drain?

drains lower body, left arm, head & neck

18

describe the route of the thoracic duct

arises from cisterna chyli
through diaphragm
ascends in front of vertebral column
empties into left subclavian vein

19

where does the right lymphatic duct drain?

drains right side of head, neck & right arm

20

describe the route of the right lymphatic duct

starts in right thorax
To the right subclavian vein

21

lymphatic ducts (Evenly/Unevenly) drain fluid from body

explain?

Unevenly;

Thoracic does the majority
It is much longer and drains the entire inferior half of the body

22

describe the movement of lymph

Contain valves
-Occur at bulges
-Prevent backflow
--Pressure is lower in lymphatics than in veins)
--Lymph is moved using similar methods to veins)
---Skeletal muscles
---Breathing
(slide 16)

23

What is it called If drainage does not occur?

lymphedema

24

Primary cells of the lymphoid system are called what?

lymphocytes

25

Lymphocytes allow for......

specific (or adaptive) immunity
-multi-faceted immune response to the detection of specific foreign antigens

26

when it comes the lymphocytes what are the three cells?

T cells
B Cells
NK Cells

27

describe NK cells (4)

-Natural killer (NK) cells
-Derived directly from bone marrow
-NON-specific immunity
-Detect chemical signals other than specific antigens (like all the other leukocytes) and induce apoptosis

28

describe B cells (3)

-Originate and develop in the bone marrow (B-cells)
-Stimulated by an antigen to produce antibodies
-Can survive for years as memory cells, and become active once exposed to a similar antigen

29

describe T cells (4)

-Originate in the bone marrow but develop in the thymus (T-cells)
-Attack cells with antigens indicating viral infection or detrimental mutations (cancer)
-Induce apoptosis
-Have memory cells similar to B-cells

30

what are lymphoid nodules?

Reticular connective tissue dominated by lymphocytes
**NOT organs

31

what is M.A.L.T

(Mucosa associated lymphoid tissue)
Digestive lymph nodules

32

where are tonsils positioned and what do they do?

-Positioned around the pharanx
-Remove pathogens that enter via air or food

33

what are the three types of tonsils? describe

1.) Pharyngeal tonsil
-one nodule in nasophranx
-a.k.a. adenoids
2.) Palatine tonsils
-two nodules on the soft palate
3.) Lingual tonsils
-two nodules at the base of the tongue

34

what MALT lines mucosa of the small intestine

Aggregated lymphoid nodules

35

what is the appendix?

Blind tube at the beginning of small intestine
Area prone to infection
-Appendicitis
-Intestinal flora enter underlying tissues

36

lymphatic organs are surrounded by.....

a fibrous, connective tissue capsule

37

what are the three lymphatic organs?

Thymus
Spleen
Lymph Nodes

38

describe lymph nodes (3)

-bean shaped
-Between several afferent and one efferent vessel
-Hilus
(indented region where BV’s, nerves, and efferent lymph vessels connect)

39

lymph nodes have a cortex and medulla.. describe both sections

Cortex:
-capsule has trabeculae that subdivide it
Has two regions:
outer cortex
(consists of aggregated B-cells)
inner cortex
(T cells enter blood here)

Medulla:
B-cells leave through the efferent vessel

40

what are the 6 locations of lymph nodes?

Cervical
Axillary
Inguinal
Pelvic
Abdominal
Thoracic

41

Where is the spleen located?

the left side of the stomach

42

True or False: the spleen is the largest lymphatic organ

true

43

the spleen is made up of 2 types of pulp... what are they and describe them

White pulp
-resembles lymph node
Red pulp
-large amounts of RBC
-sinuses, macrophages, T/B cells

44

what are the functions of the spleen? (5)

Remove old RBC’s
Store/recycle iron
Initiate immune response
Blood reservoir
RBC production in fetus

45

where is the thymus located?

in mediastium

46

describe the size and development of the thymus over time as you age

first lymph organ to develop
grows until puberty
Shrinks with age
replaced by fibrous & adipose tissue

47

the thymus has 2 lobes with lobules. what are they?

Cortex-mostly immature T-cells
Medulla-mostly reticular epithelial cells

48

describe the T cells in the thymus

Cortex produces T-cells
Mature and migrate into medulla
Enter blood vessels and go into circulation

49

describe reticular cells in the thymus

Produce thymosin
Promote T-cell differentiation