Chapter 15: Brain and Cranial Nerves Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 15: Brain and Cranial Nerves Deck (84):
1

What are the 6 regions of the adult brain?

Cerebrum
Diencephalon
mesencephalon
Cerebellum
Pons
Medulla Oblongata

2

Describe the dura mater (3)

outer-most mater
forms internal periosteum of skull
no epidura

3

What are the three dura mater partitions? what does each separate?

Falx Cerebelli: separates right and left cerebellar hemispheres
Falx Cerebri: separates right and left cerebral hemispheres
Tentorium Cerebelli: separates lobes of cerebrum from cerebellum

4

describe the arachnoid mater (2)

-spidery
-spreads over brain but doesn't extend into grooves and depressions

5

describe the pia mater (3)

-inner most mater
-aids in nourishing brain
-attached to surface of brain

6

what are ventricles? how many are there?

spaces filled with CSF; 4

7

Where are each of the 4 ventricles connected?

-2 lateral ventricles connected by interventricular foramen to the 3rd ventricle connected by cerebral aqueduct to the 4th ventricle connected to central canal of spinal cord

8

What are the functions are CSF? (3)

-Cushions
-Transport nutrients, wastes, and other chemicals
-Supports the brain

9

what is the location of CSF formation?

choroid plexus

10

what is the choroid plexus?
what does it consist of?

lobes located in the ventricles
consists of ependymal cells and permeable capillaries

11

CSF is taken from ________ by________ cells and pooled in the ___________

blood; ependymal; ventricles

12

True or False: CSF moves entirely though out the CNS and PNS

false; only through the entire CNS not PNS

13

Where does CSF movement originate?

ventricles

14

the CSF moves through ________ in the 4th ventricle to sub-arachnoid space

apertures

15

CSF moves though the _______ and around the _________

central canal; subarachnoid space

16

CSF is reabsorbed in the _________

sagittal sinus

17

describe the sagittal sinus (4)

-a large venous tube within the dura mater
-extends along the midline of the cerebral hemispheres
-arachnoid extends into sinus through arachnoid granulations
-CSF goes back to the blood

18

what are the five functions of the cerebrum?

-interpret sensory impulses
-voluntary muscular movements
-memory
-reasoning process
-intelligence and personality

19

the two cerebral hemispheres are connected by the _______ and separated by the ________

corpus callosum
longitudinal fissure

20

what is the name for the ridges in the cerebrum?
Grooves?

Gyri- ridges
Sulci-grooves

21

other than connecting the two cerebral hemispheres, what else does the corpus callosum do?

allows for communication between the hemispheres

22

describe the hemisphere specialization for the two hemispheres of the cerebrum

one hemisphere receives sensory and generates motor information to the opposite side of the body of that hemisphere

23

describe cerebral gray matter (3)

Cell Somas
-outer regions of cerebral lobes
-centralized in masses called basal nuclei
(slide14)

24

does the cerebral gray or white matter have myelinated axons?

white matter

25

what are the three fibers located in the cerebral white matter? describe them

Commissural fibers: connect corresponding gray areas on different hemispheres
Association fibers: connect different parts of same hemisphere
Projection fibers: connect cerebrum to lower brain areas

26

what are the 5 cerebral lobes

-Frontal
-Parietal
-Temporal
-Occipital
-Insula

27

What is the sulci that separates the frontal lobe from the parietal lobe ?

Central Sulcus

28

what is the sulci that separates the parietal lobe from the temporal?

Lateral sulcus

29

what is the sulci that separates the parietal lobe from the occipital?

Parieto-occipital sulcus

30

describe the primary motor cortex (4)

-Anterior to central sulcus in frontal lobe
-conscious control of skeletal muscles
-learned motor skills
-speech and eye movements

31

describe the primary sensory cortex (3)

-posterior to central sulcus on parietal lobe
-somatic sensory information from touch, pain, pressure
-monitor environment consciously

32

What are the 4 other sensory cortexes in the cerebrum?
State the name, location, and sense

VIsual Cortex
-occipital lobe
-sight
Auditory Cortex
-temporal lobe
-sound
Olfactory Cortex
-temporal lobe
-smell
Gustatory Cortex
-Insula and frontal lobe
-taste

33

What are the three High Order Integrative Regions of the cerebrum?

Prefrontal Cortex
Broca's speech center
General interpretive area

34

what is the prefrontal cortex responsible for? (4)
What is removal of the prefrontal cortex called?

-abstract intellectual function
-predictions, problem solving
-emotional context and motivation
-timing and temporal relationships

Removal= pre-frontal lobotomy

35

Broca's speech center regulates ________ and _______

breathing and vocalization

36

What two things are the General Interpretive Area responsible for?

-interpretation of both written and verbal language
-sentence structure and word linkage

37

damage to either the Broca's speech center or the General interpretive area results in some sort of _______

aphasia

38

slide 24

:)

39

what are basal nuclei?

masses of gray matter deep in cerebral hemisphere

40

Basal nuclei act as a relay station for....

motor impulses starting in cerebral cortex and passing to brain stem and spinal cord

41

what does the Claustrum do?

-focuses visual attention
-Processes unconscious visual info

42

what does the Lentiform Nucleus do?

controls & adjusts muscle tone

43

what does the Caudate nucleus look like and what does it do?

-Massive head, slender tail
-maintains pattern & rhythm of movement

44

The Amygdaloid nucleus is located at the_____________ and is part of the ________ system

tip of caudate tail; limbic

45

What makes up the diencephalon?

Epithalamus
Posterior Pituitary gland
Thalamus
Hypothalamus

46

The epithalamus contained what gland? what does this produce?

pineal
produces melatonin

47

True or False: the thalamus is central to the cerebrum

true

48

what divides the two major bodies of the thalamus?
what connects the bodies together?

third ventricles
interthalamic adhesion

49

What are the three functions of the thalamus?

1.)Part of the limbic system
-Emotion, memory, learning
-Conscious awareness of emotion
2.)Connect basal nuclei and cerebral cortex
-To each other
-To other parts of the CNS
3.) Sends sensory information to proper location within cerebrum

50

describe the location of the hypothalamus

Below (hypo) the thalamus
Above and connected to the posterior pituitary gland

51

what are the 7 functions of the hypothalamus

Subconscious control of skeletal muscles
Coordinates autonomic nervous system
The connection between the endocrine and nervous system
Directly produces hormones
Produces behavioral drives (emotions, hunger, thirst)
Regulates body temperature
Controls sleep patterns such as circadian rhythms

52

describe the mesencephalon (4)

-A.k.a. Midbrain
-Connects brain stem & spinal cord with higher areas
-act as relay centers
-Contain cerebral aqueduct that connects 3rd & 4th ventricles

53

what are the 4 parts of the mesencephalon

Cerebral peduncles
Red nucleus
Substantia nigra
Corpora quadrigemina

54

describe cerebral peduncles

Only connecting fibers and no nuclei
-Motor fibers connecting the cortex to the spinal cord
-Sensory fibers that synapse with the thalamus

55

describe the red nucleus

Highly vascularized (Hence red color)
Connects cerebrum and cerebellum
Controls posture and reflexes

56

what does the substantia nigra do?
what does it produce?

-controls and integrates the motor output of the basal nuclei
-produces dopamine (making it black in color)

57

deterioration of the substantia nigra leads to what disease?

Parkinson's Disease (loss of control of voluntary motor function)

58

the Corpora Quadrigemina consists of ________ and _______. describe what they do

Superior Calliculi
-receives visual input from thalamus
Inferior Calliculi
-receives auditory input from medulla

59

describe the Pons (5)

-Rounded bulge on underside of brain stem
-Separates midbrain from medulla
-Masses of gray matter & nerve fibers
-Relays impulses to & from medulla & cerebrum
-Regulates depth of breathing

60

the two hemispheres of the cerebellum are separated by the _______ and connected by the _______

falx cerebelli
vermis

61

is the cerebellum mainly white or gray matter?

white (arbor vitae)

62

what are four functions of the cerebellum?

-Integrates sensory information about the position of body parts
-Coordinates muscle activities
-Maintain posture
-Fine tunes voluntary and involuntary movements

63

describe the medulla oblongata (3)

-From foramen magnum to pons
-A point of connection for several cranial nerves
-Oval swelling = olivary nucleus

64

What are the two reflex centers in the medulla oblongata? describe them

Cardiovascular center
-Adjusts blood flow and heart rate

Respiratory rhythmicity center
-Basic pace of respiratory movements

65

describe the reticular formation (3)

-network of nerve fibers associated with islands of gray matter
-Interconnects areas with fibers in all major tracts
-Regulates motor activities
Inc activity --> wakefulness
Dec activity--> sleep

66

what is the limbic system?

Nuclei and tracts along the boarder of cerebrum and diencephalon

67

where in the cerebrum is the limbic system?

Limbic lobe (deep to all other lobes)
Hippocampus (nucleus within the lobe)
Amydaloid body (basal nucleus)

68

where in the diencephalon is the limbic system?

Thalamus (relay center)
Hypothalamus (behavioral drive center)

69

where in the medulla is the limbic system?

Reticular formation (sleep and wakefulness)

70

what are three functions of the limbic system?

1.) Establishes emotional states and related behavioral drives
2.) Links intellectual functions of cortex to unconscious functions of lower brain
3.) Facilitates memory storage

71

describe cranial nerves (5)

-12 total
-All originate from brain stem except 1st pair
-Cell bodies for sensory found in ganglia outside brain
-Cell bodies for motor found in gray matter
-Pass through foramina in skull

72

slide 47

wooooo anatomy

73

Olfactory

Sensory
Smell
Pass through cribriform plate

74

Optic

Sensory
Vision
Pass through optic foramina

75

Oculomotor

Motor
Move the majority of eye muscles

76

Trochlear

Motor
smallest pair
Superior oblique muscle of eye only

77

Trigeminal

both
largest
3 branches
-eye, tear gland & skin of ant scalp, forehead & upper eyelid
-upper teeth, gum, lip & mucous lining of palate & skin of face
-scalp, skin of jaw, lower teeth, gum & lip; muscles of mastication

78

Abducens

motor
from pons
lateral rectus eye muscles only

79

Facial

-both
-from pons
-sensory: taste receptors on ant 2/3 of tongue
-motor: to muscles of facial expression; stimulate tear & salivary glands

80

Vestibulocochlear

-sensory
-auditory nerve from medulla
2 parts
-sensitive to changes in position of head
-interpreted as hearing

81

Glossopharyngeal

-both
-sensory: form lining of pharynx, tonsils & post 1/3 of tongue
-motor: to wall of pharynx to help swallowing

82

Vagus

-both
-from medulla to chest & abdomen
-sensory from lining of pharynx, larynx & esophagus & abdomen
-Somatic motor: to muscles of larynx -->speech & swallowing
-Autonomic motor: to heart, other smooth muscles & glands in visceral organs

83

Accessory

-motor
2 branches
-cranial: from medulla to muscles of soft palate, pharynx & larynx
-spinal: sends motor fibers to trapezius & sternocleidomastoid

84

Hypoglossal

-motor
-from medulla to tongue
-for speaking, chewing & swallowing