Flashcards in Chapter 5: skeletal system Deck (90)
How many bones are in the body?
There are 2 division to the skeletal system. What are they? briefly describe them
axial: head and center of body
appendicular: movement (limbs and pelvis)
What are the two types of bone tissue?
compact: dense smooth bone
spongy:bone with open spaces within
What are the four components of the skeletal system?
What are the five functions of the skeletal system?
Support (rigid structure)
Movement (bones act as levers)
Storage (Ca, P, and fat)
Blood cell production
cartilage consists of what two things?
cells and an extracellular matrix
what cells are found in cartilage and where are they located?
Chondrocytes and they are found in compartments called lacunae
what are the two components to the extracellular matrix of cartilage?
Collagen/elastic fibers and a ground substance made of chondrotin sulfates
does cartilage have arteries, veins, or lymphocytes? what does this mean?
no; it means it heals slowly
what are the three types of cartilage?
describe hyaline cartilage and give its structure and location
Most common but weakest
Structure: chondrocytes, chondrotin sulfate, some collagen
Location: embryonic skeleton, articular surfaces, respiratory passages, nasal septum, between ribs and sternum
Give the structure and location of elastic cartilage
Structure: chondrocytes, chondrotin sulfate, densely packed elastic fibers
Location: auricle, tip and lateral walls of nose, epiglottis
Give the structure and location of fibrocartilage
Structure: chondrocytes, chondrotin sulfate, densely packed collagen fibers
Location: intervertebral discs, public symphysis, articular cartilage in knee
describe the perichondrium
fibrous connective tissue that surrounds the cartilage, It provides support and protection and new chondrocytes
where is the perichondrium located?
Located: hyaline cartilage and elastic cartilage
Absent: articular surface and fibrocartilage
describe the inner and outer layers of the perichondrium
inner: for growth and maintenance
outer: binds cartilage to adjacent tissues; provides protection and support
describe appositional growth
-starts in the perichondrium
-Mesenchymal (stem) cells at periphery form in inner layer of perichondrium
-Mesenchyme move toward matrix to become chondrogenic cells
-Chondrogenic cells aggregate and become chondroblasts
-Chondroblasts secrete matrix --> forces cells apart
-Chondroblasts become enclosed in matrix and become chondrocytes
describe interstitial growth
-Chondrocytes are enclosed in matrix and divide
-As they move apart, matrix forms between them
-Growth of cartilage from within
what are three general traits of osseous tissue?
-supportive connective tissue
-contains specialized cells
-solid extracelliular matrix
what is found in the solid extracellular matrix of osseous tissue?
osteoid: organic portion, protein fibers
ground substance: Ca salts water
What do Osteoprogenitor cells do?
play role in initial bone growth and fracture repair
-derived from osteogenic cells
-common in growing bone
-Predecessor to osteocytes
-Increased osteoblast activity = stronger bone
-exist within matrix
-maintain Ca and PO4 homeostasis
-found in spaces called lacunae
involved in osteolysis
Break down of bone
Increase osteoclast activity weaker bone
Formed from the fusion of many white blood stem cell
look at slide 20
Compact bone is arranged in______
Spongy bone is arranged in______
Osteocytes communicate through _______ that radiate outward and connect one cell to the next cell
what are osteons?
units of compact bone
___________ of matrix surrounding a ______________
concentric lamellae; central (Haversian) canal