Chapter 5: skeletal system Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 5: skeletal system Deck (90)
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1

How many bones are in the body?

206

2

There are 2 division to the skeletal system. What are they? briefly describe them

axial: head and center of body
appendicular: movement (limbs and pelvis)

3

What are the two types of bone tissue?

compact: dense smooth bone
spongy:bone with open spaces within

4

What are the four components of the skeletal system?

bone
cartilage
ligaments
tendons

5

What are the five functions of the skeletal system?

Protection
Support (rigid structure)
Movement (bones act as levers)
Storage (Ca, P, and fat)
Blood cell production

6

cartilage consists of what two things?

cells and an extracellular matrix

7

what cells are found in cartilage and where are they located?

Chondrocytes and they are found in compartments called lacunae

8

what are the two components to the extracellular matrix of cartilage?

Collagen/elastic fibers and a ground substance made of chondrotin sulfates

9

does cartilage have arteries, veins, or lymphocytes? what does this mean?

no; it means it heals slowly

10

what are the three types of cartilage?

hyaline
elastic
fibrocartilage

11

describe hyaline cartilage and give its structure and location

Most common but weakest
Structure: chondrocytes, chondrotin sulfate, some collagen
Location: embryonic skeleton, articular surfaces, respiratory passages, nasal septum, between ribs and sternum

12

Give the structure and location of elastic cartilage

Structure: chondrocytes, chondrotin sulfate, densely packed elastic fibers
Location: auricle, tip and lateral walls of nose, epiglottis
-flexible

13

Give the structure and location of fibrocartilage

Structure: chondrocytes, chondrotin sulfate, densely packed collagen fibers
Location: intervertebral discs, public symphysis, articular cartilage in knee

14

describe the perichondrium

fibrous connective tissue that surrounds the cartilage, It provides support and protection and new chondrocytes

15

where is the perichondrium located?
absent?

Located: hyaline cartilage and elastic cartilage
Absent: articular surface and fibrocartilage

16

describe the inner and outer layers of the perichondrium

inner: for growth and maintenance
outer: binds cartilage to adjacent tissues; provides protection and support

17

describe appositional growth

-starts in the perichondrium
-Mesenchymal (stem) cells at periphery form in inner layer of perichondrium
-Mesenchyme move toward matrix to become chondrogenic cells
-Chondrogenic cells aggregate and become chondroblasts
-Chondroblasts secrete matrix --> forces cells apart
-Chondroblasts become enclosed in matrix and become chondrocytes

18

describe interstitial growth

-Chondrocytes are enclosed in matrix and divide
-As they move apart, matrix forms between them
-Growth of cartilage from within

19

what are three general traits of osseous tissue?

-supportive connective tissue
-contains specialized cells
-solid extracelliular matrix

20

what is found in the solid extracellular matrix of osseous tissue?

osteoid: organic portion, protein fibers
ground substance: Ca salts water

21

What do Osteoprogenitor cells do?

play role in initial bone growth and fracture repair

22

describe osteoblasts

-derived from osteogenic cells
-secrete osteoid
-common in growing bone
-Predecessor to osteocytes
-Increased osteoblast activity = stronger bone

23

describe osteocytes

-mature cells
-exist within matrix
-maintain Ca and PO4 homeostasis
-found in spaces called lacunae

24

describe osteoclasts

involved in osteolysis
Break down of bone
Increase osteoclast activity  weaker bone
Very large
Formed from the fusion of many white blood stem cell

25

look at slide 20

:)

26

Compact bone is arranged in______
Spongy bone is arranged in______

osteons
trabeculae

27

Osteocytes communicate through _______ that radiate outward and connect one cell to the next cell

canaliculi

28

what are osteons?

units of compact bone

29

___________ of matrix surrounding a ______________

concentric lamellae; central (Haversian) canal

30

do osteons contain blood vessels and nerves?

yes