Chapter 3 Tissues PP bolded words Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 3 Tissues PP bolded words Deck (81):
1

What is a tissue?

many cells that act and/or look similar that do the same thing

2

several different tissues working together make up an...?

an organ

3

what is the study of tissues?

Histology

4

what are the four primary tissue types?

1.) Epithelial
2.) Connective
3.) Muscle
4.) Neural

5

What are the 6 characteristics of epithelial tissue?

1.) Cellularity
2.) Polarity
3.) Attachment
4.) Avascularity
5.) Regeneration
6.) Covers all body surfaces (Arranged into sheets or layers)

6

What are the 4 functions of epithelial tissue?

1.) Provides protection
2.) Control permeability
3.) Provide sensation
4.) Produce specialized secretions

7

What does cellularity mean in relation to epithelial tissue?

-There is little or no intercellular space between the cells in epithelial tissues
-no matrix between cells
-connected by junctions
-may contain fluids (even be water tight)

8

What does avascularity mean in relation to epithelial tissue?

-There are no blood vessels found in epithelial tissue
-nutrients are supplied through blood in the underlying tissue (diffusion across the apical or basal surfaces)

9

What are the three different classifications of epithelia?

Simple
Stratified
Pseudostratified

10

What are the four different epithelial cell shapes?

Squamous
Cuboidal
Columnar
Transitional

11

What is the structure, function, and location of simple squamous cells?

Structure: One layer of thin, flat, irregular cells
Function: Diffusion, secretion to reduce friction
Location: serous membranes, blood vessels, lungs, kidney tubules

12

What is the structure, function, and location of simple cuboidal cells?

Structure: one layer, hexagonal box-shaped cells
Function: absorption, secretion, limited protection
Location: Glands, ducts, kidney tubules

13

What is the structure, function, and location of simple columnar cells?

Structure: one layer, hexagonal column-shaped cells
Function: protection, absorption, secretion
Location: stomach, intestine, gallbladder, uterine tubes

14

What is the structure, function, and location of pseudostratified columnar cells?

Structure: one layer, multishaped cells, nuclei at varied heights
Function: protection, secretion
Location: respiratory tract, male reproductive tract

15

What is the structure, function, and location of stratified squamous cells?

Structure: thin, flat, irregular cells
Function: protection against frequent abrasion
Location: skin, mouth, throat, esophagus, rectum, anus, vagina

16

What is the structure, function, and location of stratified cuboidal cells?

Structure: multiple layers, hexagonal shaped boxes
Function: secretion
Location: Rare; sweat gland ducts

17

What is the structure, function, and location of stratified columnar cells?

Structure: multiple layers, hexagonal column-shaped cells
Function: protection, secretion
Location: Rare; pharynx, epiglottis, anus, glands

18

What is the structure, function, and location of transitional cells?

Structure: multiple layers, can change shape
Function: expansion and recoil without tearing
Location: urinary bladder, renal pelvis

19

what is a gland?

epithelial cells that are aggregated together to produce a specific product

20

where do exocrine glands secrete?

into ducts that open on a surface

21

where do endocrine glands secrete?

into tissue fluid or blood

22

what is the name for the cell that creates a unicellular exocrine gland?

goblet cell

23

describe secretory sheets

multicellular gland
one large sheer covering a surface
rarely have ducts or pockets

24

describe multicellular simple glands

have one distinct duct with outpocketing
defined by the number and shape of these pockets:
1.) tubular: elongate
2.) coiled: winds
3.) alveolar: lobed
(look at slide for pictures)

25

describe multicellular compound glands

have many distinct ducts with outpocketing
defined by the number and shape of these pockets:
1.) tubular: elongate
2.) coiled: winds
3.) alveolar: lobed

26

Merocrine glands secrete product via__________

exocytosis (vesicles within cytoplasm bring product to the surface)

27

what is an example of a merocrine gland?

salivary glands

28

describe apocrine glands and give an example

pinching off if a cell portion where the product is within this portion
an example is mammary glands

29

describe holocrine glands and give an example

product accumulates in cytosol; cell ruptures and becomes the product

30

Name 6 general traits of connective tissue

1.) most abundant
2.) multiple functions
3.) spread apart
4.) able to reproduce
5.) well nourished; good blood supply
6.) vary in structure

31

All connective tissue is derived from what cells?

mesenchymal cells

32

connective tissue is composed of 2 things. what are they?

extracellular matrix and cells that produce the matrix

33

give three characteristics of the extracellular matrix

1.) secreted by cells
2.) protein fibers
3.) ground substance (consistency varies from liquid to gel to solid)

34

name some functions of connective tissue

bind structures
support and protection
fill spaces
store fat
produce blood
repair damage
protect against infection
transport fluids and dissolved materials

35

Connective Tissue Proper is connective tissue with cells and fibers in_______________________

gel like ground substance

36

What are the three loose connective tissues?

areolar, adipose, reticular

37

what are the three dense connective tissues?

regular, elastic, irregular

38

For the major cell types of the CTP, what are the 5 fixed cell types?

mesenchymal
fibroblasts (produce protein fibers)
fixed macrophages (white blood cells that consume damaged cells and invaders)
adipocytes (fat cells)
melanocytes (produce melanin)

39

For the major cell types of the CTP, what are the 2 types of Wandering cells? briefly describe them

Free Macrophages: white blood cells consume damaged cells and invaders
Other White Blood Cells: secrete histamine; produce antibodies; consume damaged cells and invaders

40

What are some characteristics of Collagen fibers?
Where are they found?

-25% of protein in your body
-the collagen protein is arranged into thick fibers
-tough, resistant to pull, yet pliable (strong, not stiff)
-formed from the protein collagen
-found in bone, cartilage, tendons, ligaments

41

What are some characteristics of Elastic fibers?
Where are they found?

-formed from the proteins elastin and fibrillin
-smaller diameter fibers than collagen
-rubbery, resilient
-can stretch up to 150% of relaxed length and return to original shape
-found in the lungs, blood vessels, skin

42

what are reticular fibers formed of?
describe what they look like
where are they found?

-formed from the protein collagen
-thin, branched (network-like) fibers that form framework of organs
-spleen, lympth nodes, basal lamina

43

What is the structure, function, and location of Areolar CT?

structure: loosely arranged fibers, mast cells, macrophages, fibrocytes, adipocytes
function: hold skin to underlying organs; fill spaces between muscles
location: digestive, respiratory, and urinary tract; BV's, nerves, joints, around and between skeletal and smooth muscle, hypodermis of skin

44

What is the structure, function, and location of adipose CT?

Structure: mostly adipocytes
Function: cushions joints, insulation, store energy, support
Location: Hypodermis, between muscles, around kidney, behind eye, joints, abdominal membrane, surface of heart

45

What is the structure, function, and location of reticular CT?

Structure: fibroblasts, reticular fibers in 3D web
Function: support tissue in walls of organs
Location: lymphoid organs, liver, and spleen

46

What is the structure, function, and location of dense regular CT?

Structure: many collagen fibers densely packed, parallel, little open space
Function: reinforces structures in one direction
Location: tendons and ligaments

**almost all protein fibers
collagen is rope-like
tension in one direction

47

What is the structure, function, and location of dense irregular CT?

Structure: same as regular except no pattern
Function: reinforces in several directions
Location: dermis, joint capsules, capsules of organs

**tension in many directions
located also in whites of eyes

48

What is the structure, function, and location of elastic CT?

Structure: elastic fibers in parallel strands or branched networks; fibroblasts
Location: between vertebrae, walls of hollow organs
Functions: provide elasticity

(hollow organs=lungs, etc)

49

What are the two types of Fluid Connective Tissue?

Blood and Lympth

50

blood has a liquid matrix... what is this called?

the plasma

51

What are the three blood cell types?

red blood cells (erythrocytes)
white blood cells (leukocytes)
cell fragments (platelets)

52

what does blood do?

provide clotting, immune functions, carry oxygen and carbon dioxide

53

What does Supporting Connective Tissue do?
What are two examples?

provide a framework that supports the rest of the body
examples: cartilage and bone

**bone is brittle but sturdy

54

What makes up membranes?

epithelial and connective tissue

55

what do membranes do?

form barriers
cover and protect

56

What are four membrane types?

Mucous
Serous
Cutaneous
Synovial

57

What do Mucous membranes do?
Where are they located?

line passageways open to exterior; it is a protective barrier out of cells (mucous) (goblet)
Located in respiratory passages, mouth, digestive tract

58

mucous membranes contain________ tissue

areolar

59

how many layers thick is the mucous membrane? is it alive or dead?

mostly if not totally alive and 1-5 layers thick depending on location

60

What makes up the Serous membrane? what do they do?

simple squamous mesothelium; secretes watery fluid
*these membranes are not exposed to wear and tear and they are not exposed to food. the cells are very small and thin

61

Where is the serous membrane located?

lining of pleural (lung) cavity, abdominopelvic cavity, scrotal cavity and pericardial cavity

62

give 6 characteristics of the cutaneous membrane

1.) skin
2.) covers the body (always exposed to outside world)
3.) waterproof
4.) thick
5.) dry
6.) oily

63

Are most of the cells in the cutaneous membrane alive or dead?

dead

64

Where are Synovial Membranes located?
What do they produce and why?

-located in joint cavities
-produce synovial fluid to lubricate joints and promote smooth movement

*made up of simple squamous cells
*separates joint from the rest of the body

65

Starting at the skin and working deeper into the body, what are the three fasciae?

superficial fascia
deep fascia
subserous fascia

66

What type of tissue is the superficial fascia made up of?

areolar tissue and adipose tissue

67

What are the two other names for the superficial fascia?

subcutaneous layers
hypodermis

68

What makes up the deep fascia?

dense CT sheets

69

what does the deep fascia do?

binds to tendons, capsules, and bones

70

Where does the deep fascia lie?

between the superficial fascia and the muscle layer

71

Where does the subserous fascia lie?

between the serous membranes and the deep fascia

72

What makes up the subserous fascia?
What does it bind to?

areolar CT sheet
binds to serous membranes

73

What are general characteristics of muscle tissue?

contractile
elastic
extensible
excitable

**create tension

74

What are the three types of muscle tissue?

Skeletal
Cardiac
Smooth

75

What is the structure, function and location of skeletal muscle tissue?

Structure: large, cylindrical muscle fibers, multinucleated, striated, has satellite cells
Function: voluntary control of skeleton, controls opening into digestive system, heat generation
Location: skeletal muscles (with connective/nervous tissue)

76

What is the structure, function and location of cardiac muscle tissue?

Structure: unicellular branched cardiocytes, uninucleate, striated, involuntary
Function: Heartbeat
Location: Heart

**difficult for heart to not beat in single unit

77

What is something similar between the cardiac muscle tissue and the skeletal muscle tissue? difference?

both have the same striation however muscle tissue is long strings of fibers and cardiac is webs with branches

78

What is the structure, function, and location of smooth muscle tissue?

Structure: short, tapered cells, uninucleated, Non-striated, Involuntary, can divide and regenerate
Function: Involuntary control of respiratory, digestive, and circulatory systems
Location: lines tracts, BVs, and hollow organs

79

Which muscle tissues are really good at reproducing?
Which cannot reproduce?

Good= Smooth
Cannot=Skeletal

80

Which muscle tissue makes up the majority of muscle mass?

Skeletal

81

What are the two cell types of Nervous Tissue?
What do they do?

Neurons: transmit impulses for cell communication
Neuroglia: Support, nourish, and protect neurons