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Flashcards in chapter 25 Deck (30):
1

metabolism
-definition
-function

sum of chemical reactions occurring within the body
-provides energy needed to maintain homeostasis

2

catabolism
-definition
-when nutrients coming in are low =

-breakdown of organic substances-process releases energy
-cell will breakdown reserves

3

anabolism

synthesis of new organic molecules

4

nutrient pool

sources of substances for catabolism and anabolism

5

absorptive state
-definition
-what is happening
-type of period

-period following a meal, ~4 hrs
-nutrients are entering your system
-anabolic period

6

postabsorptive state
-definition
-what is happening
-type of period

-long time after eating; GI tract is empty
-nutrients are not entering the system
-catabolic

7

absorptive state
-carbs
-proteins
-lipids

-glucose --glycogenesis--> glycogen
-amino acids --protein synthesis--> proteins
-glycerol + FA --lipoproteins--> tryglycerides

8

postabsorptive state
-carbs
-proteins
-lipids

-glycogen --glycogenolysis--> glycogen
-protein --proteolysis--> AA
-tryclycerides --lipolysis-- glycerol + FA

9

Aerobic respiration
-aka
-glucose catabolism
-4 principle steps

-cellular respiration
-C6H12O6 + 6O2 -> 6Co2 + 6H2O + energy
- 1. glycolysis
2. pyruvate oxidation
3. the citric acid (TCA) cycle
4. Electron transport

10

C6H12O6
-known as
-what does it undergo

-glucose
-glucose oxidation

11

glucose oxidation

break bonds of glucose and release e-
-electrons will be added to O2`

12

6O2

final e- acceptor

13

6CO2

exits the cell

14

energy

heat and 36 ATP

15

glycolysis
-location
-definition
-# of steps
-type of process

-cytosol
-conversion of 6C glucose to 2 3C pyruvate; glucose splitting in the cytoplasm
-10 steps
-anaerobic (no O2 needed)

16

glycolysis
-what happens to the e- released from glucose during oxidation
-# of ATP produced
-how is ATP produced
-products

-added to a molecule of NAD as part of a H+ ion
-2
-by substrate level phosphorylation
-2 pyruvate, 2 NADH, 2 ATP

17

pyruvate oxidation
-location
-what is it
-what happens to the e- released from pyruvate during its oxidation
-how much ATP is produced
-products

-mitochondrial matrix
-conversion of 2 3C pyruvates to 2 molecules of acetyl CoA
-they are added as part of a H+ ion to NAD
-none
-2 acetyl CoA; 2 CO2; 2 NADH

18

what does coenzyme A serve as in pyruvate oxidation

a carrier which helps to transport acetyl group

19

The citric acid cycle
-aka
-location
-what is it
-what happens to in e- released from acetyl CoA during its oxidation

-krebs cycle
-mitochondrial matrix
-breakdown of 2 2-C aceytl units to Co2
-e- are added as H+ ions to NAD to more NADH and to FAD to make FADH

20

the citric acid cycle
-is ATP produced? If so, how?
-products

-yes through substrate level phosphorylation
-4 Co2, 6 NADH, 2 FADH2, 2 ATP

21

the electron transport chain
-location
-what is it

-cristae of mitochondria
-group of electron carriers that receive e- from 1 NADH and FADH2 and pass them from one carrier to the next

22

the electron transport chain
-where do the electrons delivered to it come from
-what is the final electron acceptor
-is ATP produced? if so, how?

-NADH and FADH2
-O2
-yes by oxidative phosphorylation

23

oxidative phophorylation
-definition
-activates what

e- passed down chain and energizes the cristae
-activates an enzyme ATP synthase

24

ATP synthase

ADP + P -> ATP

25

what do fatty acids under go

beta oxidation to produce acetyl CoA

26

what do AA undergo

deamination

27

deamination

carbon chain + ammonium -> liver converts to urea

28

what is the main catabolic pathway

glucose catabolism

29

Anaerobic respiration
-aka
-respiration without
-will occur where and when
-what serves as the final e- acceptor

-anaerobic glycolysis
-O2
-in skeletal muscles during intense exercise. when ATP production by oxidative phosphorylation cannot meet demand
-pyruvate

30

anaerobic respiration
-what is generated
-what happens when pyruvate accepts e- from NADH forming a new NAD molecule

-small amounts of ATP
-regerneration allows glycolysis to continue