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1

endocrine system
-consists of
-function

-consists of all endocrine cells and tissues that produce hormones
-regulates long term processes

2

nervous system
-relies on
-type of signals
-effects are short or long
-controls
-known as

-neurotransmitters
-electrical signals are fast
-short
-muscles and glands
-"crisis management"

3

endocrine system
-relies on
-type of signals
-effects are short or long
-controls
-directs

-hormones released into the blood
-hormones travel to tissues and organs
-long
-growth, metabolism, development, and reproduction
-directs gradual, coordinated processes

4

endocrine system
-group of
-do they contain ducts?
-chemical messengers are
-what do the target cells contain
-type of response

-scattered cells that are not related in function
-no they are ductless so they secrete directly into the blood
-hormones
-protein receptors that bind specific hormones
-physiological

5

hormones
-___ diverse
-3 types
-travel through
-can be __ or ___

-chemically diverse
-1. AA derivatives
2. peptides
3. lipid derivatives
-free or bound to carrier protein

6

AA derivatives ex

thyroid hormone and catecholamines

7

peptide hormone ex

TSH, FSH, LH, ADH, GH, oxytocin and prolactin

8

lipid derivatives ex

steroid hormones

9

physiological response of the endocrine system

decrease or increase rate of production of enzymes or proteins; turn enzymes "on" or "off"

10

mechanisms of hormone action
-2 steps

1. activation of membrane receptors
2. activation of intracellular receptors: the gene activation mechanism

11

activation of membrane receptors
-involves
-signal transduction
-6 steps

-a receptor on the plasma membrane of target cell
-how hormones alter the activity of target cells
-1. hormone exits blood and enters intertitial fluid
2. it binds to receptor on cell
3. this activates a membrane protein = G protein
4. a membrane enzyme called adenylate cyclase is activated
5. adenylate cyclase catalyzes the conversion of ATP to cyclic AMP
6. cAMP leads to alteration of cellular activites

12

activation of intracellular receptors: the gene ctivation mechanism
-ex
-6 steps

-steroid hormones (ex testosterone, estrogen, progesteron)
1. hormone diffuses through plasma membrane
2. it binds to intracellular receptor
3. hormone/receptor complex binds with DNA
4. cause transcription of DNA to produce mRNA
5. translation of mRNA to produce specific proteins
6. New protein leads to alteration of cellular activities

13

parathyroid gland location

posterior surface of thyroid gland

14

pineal gland location

roof of 3rd ventricle

15

endocrine glands

1. hypothalamus
2. pineal gland
3. pituitary gland
4. thyroid gland
5. thymus
6. pancreas
7. testes
8. ovaries
9. adrenal gland
10. parathyroid gland

16

pituitary gland
-aka
-location
-2 lobes
-lobes connected by

-hypophysis
-within sella turcica
-anterior lobe and posterior lobe
-infundibulum

17

sella turcica
-part of__
-location

-sphenoid bone which hangs inferior to hypothalamus

18

anterior lobe of the pituitary gland
-aka
-contains
-function

-adenohypohysis
-a variety of endocrine cells and has an extensive capillary bed
-produces 7 hormones

19

what does an extensive capillary bed provide

access to blood

20

posterior lobe of the pituitary gland
-aka
-contains

-neurohypophysis
-contains axons of neurons found in the hypothalamus and an extensive capillary bed

21

7 anterior pituitary hormones

1. thyroid stimulating hormone/thyrotropin
2. adrenocorticotropic hormone/corticotropin
3. luteinizing hormone
4. follicle stimulating hormone
5. growth hormone
6. prolactin
7. melanocyte stimulating hormone

22

Thyroid stimulating hormone/thyrotropin
-abbr.
-target
-action

-TSH
-thyroid gland
-increase synthesis and secretion of thyroid hormones

23

adrenocorticotropic hormone/corticotropin
-abbr.
-target
-action

-ACTH
-adrenal gland (outer cortex region)
-increases secretion of cortisol from adrenal cortex

24

luteinizing hormone
-abbr.
-target
-action

-LH
-gonads
-ovaries: induces ovulation and secretion of estrogen
-testes: stimulates production of androgens

25

Follicle stimulating hormone
-abbr.
-target
-action

-FSH
-gonads
-ovaries: follicle development and secretion of estrogens
-testes: sperm dev

26

Growth hormone
-abbr.
-target
-action

-GH
-all tissues particularly skeletal muscles and cartilage
-stimulates cell growth and replication

27

prolactin
-abbr.
-target
-action

-none
-mammary glands
-stimulates gland development and milk production

28

Melanocyte stimulating hormone
-abbr.
-target
-action

-MSH
-melanocytes in skin
-stimulates melanocytes (not normally found in adult blood)

29

posterior pituitary hormones

1. antidiuretic hormone
2. oxytocin

30

antidiuretic hormone
-abbr.
-target
-action

-ADH
-kidneys
-decreases water loss at kidneys