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1

endocrine system
-consists of
-function

-consists of all endocrine cells and tissues that produce hormones
-regulates long term processes

2

nervous system
-relies on
-type of signals
-effects are short or long
-controls
-known as

-neurotransmitters
-electrical signals are fast
-short
-muscles and glands
-"crisis management"

3

endocrine system
-relies on
-type of signals
-effects are short or long
-controls
-directs

-hormones released into the blood
-hormones travel to tissues and organs
-long
-growth, metabolism, development, and reproduction
-directs gradual, coordinated processes

4

endocrine system
-group of
-do they contain ducts?
-chemical messengers are
-what do the target cells contain
-type of response

-scattered cells that are not related in function
-no they are ductless so they secrete directly into the blood
-hormones
-protein receptors that bind specific hormones
-physiological

5

hormones
-___ diverse
-3 types
-travel through
-can be __ or ___

-chemically diverse
-1. AA derivatives
2. peptides
3. lipid derivatives
-free or bound to carrier protein

6

AA derivatives ex

thyroid hormone and catecholamines

7

peptide hormone ex

TSH, FSH, LH, ADH, GH, oxytocin and prolactin

8

lipid derivatives ex

steroid hormones

9

physiological response of the endocrine system

decrease or increase rate of production of enzymes or proteins; turn enzymes "on" or "off"

10

mechanisms of hormone action
-2 steps

1. activation of membrane receptors
2. activation of intracellular receptors: the gene activation mechanism

11

activation of membrane receptors
-involves
-signal transduction
-6 steps

-a receptor on the plasma membrane of target cell
-how hormones alter the activity of target cells
-1. hormone exits blood and enters intertitial fluid
2. it binds to receptor on cell
3. this activates a membrane protein = G protein
4. a membrane enzyme called adenylate cyclase is activated
5. adenylate cyclase catalyzes the conversion of ATP to cyclic AMP
6. cAMP leads to alteration of cellular activites

12

activation of intracellular receptors: the gene ctivation mechanism
-ex
-6 steps

-steroid hormones (ex testosterone, estrogen, progesteron)
1. hormone diffuses through plasma membrane
2. it binds to intracellular receptor
3. hormone/receptor complex binds with DNA
4. cause transcription of DNA to produce mRNA
5. translation of mRNA to produce specific proteins
6. New protein leads to alteration of cellular activities

13

parathyroid gland location

posterior surface of thyroid gland

14

pineal gland location

roof of 3rd ventricle

15

endocrine glands

1. hypothalamus
2. pineal gland
3. pituitary gland
4. thyroid gland
5. thymus
6. pancreas
7. testes
8. ovaries
9. adrenal gland
10. parathyroid gland

16

pituitary gland
-aka
-location
-2 lobes
-lobes connected by

-hypophysis
-within sella turcica
-anterior lobe and posterior lobe
-infundibulum

17

sella turcica
-part of__
-location

-sphenoid bone which hangs inferior to hypothalamus

18

anterior lobe of the pituitary gland
-aka
-contains
-function

-adenohypohysis
-a variety of endocrine cells and has an extensive capillary bed
-produces 7 hormones

19

what does an extensive capillary bed provide

access to blood

20

posterior lobe of the pituitary gland
-aka
-contains

-neurohypophysis
-contains axons of neurons found in the hypothalamus and an extensive capillary bed

21

7 anterior pituitary hormones

1. thyroid stimulating hormone/thyrotropin
2. adrenocorticotropic hormone/corticotropin
3. luteinizing hormone
4. follicle stimulating hormone
5. growth hormone
6. prolactin
7. melanocyte stimulating hormone

22

Thyroid stimulating hormone/thyrotropin
-abbr.
-target
-action

-TSH
-thyroid gland
-increase synthesis and secretion of thyroid hormones

23

adrenocorticotropic hormone/corticotropin
-abbr.
-target
-action

-ACTH
-adrenal gland (outer cortex region)
-increases secretion of cortisol from adrenal cortex

24

luteinizing hormone
-abbr.
-target
-action

-LH
-gonads
-ovaries: induces ovulation and secretion of estrogen
-testes: stimulates production of androgens

25

Follicle stimulating hormone
-abbr.
-target
-action

-FSH
-gonads
-ovaries: follicle development and secretion of estrogens
-testes: sperm dev

26

Growth hormone
-abbr.
-target
-action

-GH
-all tissues particularly skeletal muscles and cartilage
-stimulates cell growth and replication

27

prolactin
-abbr.
-target
-action

-none
-mammary glands
-stimulates gland development and milk production

28

Melanocyte stimulating hormone
-abbr.
-target
-action

-MSH
-melanocytes in skin
-stimulates melanocytes (not normally found in adult blood)

29

posterior pituitary hormones

1. antidiuretic hormone
2. oxytocin

30

antidiuretic hormone
-abbr.
-target
-action

-ADH
-kidneys
-decreases water loss at kidneys

31

oxytocin
-abbr.
-target
-action

-none
-uterus and mammary glands
-promotes labor and delivery; promotes milk ejection from mammary glands

32

control of the secretion of pituitary hormones: posterior pituitary
-supreoptic nuclei
-paraventricular nuclei
-hormones travel along

-produce ADH and oxytocin
-produce ADH and oxytocin
-along axons in infundibulum to axon terminals

33

control of the secretion of pituitary hormones: anterior pituitary
-neurosecretory type of cells in the hypothalamus secrete

releasing or inhibiting hormones into the pituitary plexus

34

control of the secretion of pituitary hormones: anterior pituitary
-growth hormone releasing hormone
-growth hormone inhibiting hormone
-thyrotropin releasing hormone
-corticotropin releasing hormone
-prolactin releasing hormone
-prolactin inhibitory hormone
-gonadotropin releasing hormone

-release of GH
-inhibits GH
-release of TSH
-release of ACTH
-release of prolactin
-inhibits release of prolactin
-release of LH or FSH

35

control of the secretion of pituitary hormones: anterior pituitary
-where do hormones go next?
-releasing hormones?

-they enter hypophyseal portal system
-releasing hormone travel to anterior pituitary gland

36

when releasing hormone travel to anterior pituitary gland what does it stimulate

secretion of target hormones

37

hypophyseal portal system

capillary network surrounding anterior pituitary gland

38

neurosecretory system

secrete releasing hormones

39

negative feedback

controls rate of production of regulatory hormones by the hypothalamus

40

endocrine glands: the thyroid gland
-location
-shape
-connection
-hormones secreted

-anterior neck, inferior to thyroid cartilage
-butterfly shaped
-isthmus
- thyroxine (T4) and triidothyronine (T3) = thyroid hormones; calcitonin

41

microscopic structure of the thyroid gland
-type of epithelium
-3 structures

-cuboidal
-1. c cells
2. follicle cell
3. colloid

42

c cells of the thyroid gland
-type of cells
-function

-parafollicular cells
-produce calcitonin

43

follicle cell of the thyroid gland
-function

produce thyroglobulin which contain thyroid hormones

44

colloid of the thyroid gland

fluid containing large quantities of thyroglobulin

45

synthesis and secretion of thyroid hormones
-6 steps

1. iodine is transported into follicle cell
2. iodine is converted into active form (I+) and linked to tyrosine and incorporated into thyroglobulin
3. thyroglobulin with T3 and T4 are secreted into the follicle cavity
4. thyroid stimulating hormone stimulates uptake of thyroglobulin/T3 and T4 complex
5. T3 and T4 are released from thyroglobulin
6 and &. T3 and T4 are released into the blood

46


-what regulates synthesis and release of thyroid hormones

TSH

47

when TSH targets thyroid gland it stimulates
-3 things

1. iodine transport into follicle cell
2. production of thyroglobulin
3. release of thyroid hormones

48

thyroid hormones are ___ w/o TSH

inactive

49

function of thyroid hormone
-affects what
-T3/T4 (5)

-affects almost every cell in the body
-1. increases mitochondrial ATP production
2. increases enzyme activity for glycolysis
3. increases BMR
4. increases heat production
5. provides negative feedback to regulate the production of TRH and TSH

50

abnormalities of the thyroid hormone
-2

hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism

51

hypothyroidism
-6

-lower than normal T3/T4
-reduced metabolic rate
-reduced appetite with weight gain
-intolerance to cold temps
-weak skeletal muscles
-poor memory and slow reflexes

52

hyperthyroidism

-higher than normal T3/T4
-increased metabolic rate
-increased appetite and weight loss
-intolerance to heat
-rapid heart rate and increased BP
-increased irritability

53

3 functions of calcitonin

1. regulates concentration of Ca++ of body fluids
2. responds directly to concentration of Ca++ in body fluids (DOES NOT involve the hypothalamus or pituitary gland)
3. decreases [Ca++] of body fluids

54

endocrine glands: the parathyroid gland
-location
-2 types of cells
-hormone secreted

-2 pairs embedded in posterior thyroid gland
-parathyroid cells and oxyphil cells
-parathyroid hormone

55

parathyroid hormone
-3 functions

1. regulates [Ca++] of body fluids
2. responds directly to [Ca++] in body fluids
3. increases [Ca++] in body fluids
-low level of [Ca++] in blood

56

regulation of plasma calcium: high blood calcium
-cell membranes
-release
-effects
-result

-less responsive
-calcitonin
-1. increase secretion of Ca++ by kidneys
2. increases Ca++ deposits in bone by inhibiting osteoclast activity
-blood Ca++ levels are lowered

57

regulation of plasma calcium: low blood calcium
-cell membranes
-release
-effects
-result

-become too excitable (convulsions and muscular spasms)
-released parathyroid hormone
-1. release stored Ca++ from bone
2. increase reabsorption of Ca++ by kidney
3. increase absorption of Ca++ in digestive tract
-blood Ca++ levels are raised

58

what does released stored Ca++ form bone do

-increases osteoclast activity and decreases osteoblast activity

59

endocrine glands: the adrenal gland
-location
-5 structures

-sites on superior border of each kidney
-1. capsule
2. zona glomerulasa
3. zona fasciculata
4. zona reticularis
5. medulla

60

secretory activities of the adrenal medulla is controlled by the

sympathetic NS

61

adrenal medulla hormones
-produces
-effects on cellular metabolism

-epinephrine (75-80%) and norepinephrine (20-25%)
- increases metabolism of the cell

62

adrenal medulla hormones: increasing metabolism of the cell effects
-muscle
-adipose tissue
-liver
-heart

-increases strength and endurance
-increases breakdown of FA
-increases breakdown of glycogen
-increases rate and force of contraction

63

3 adrenal cortex hormones

1. mineralocorticoids
2. glucocorticoids
3. gonadocorticoids

64

mineralcorticoids
-mostly
-produced where
-target
-2 actions

-aldosterone
-in zona glomerulosa
-kidneys
-1. increases reabsorption of Na+ and H2O
2. increases secretions of K+

65

glucocorticoids
-mainly
-produced where
-target
-action in liver
-action in adipose
-anti inflammatory effects

-cortisol
-zona fasciculata
-most cells
-increase rate of glucose syntheisis and glycogen formation
-increase in FA in blood
-decrease in WBC activity

66

gonadocorticoids
-cheifly
-produced where
-target
- action: before puberty
-action: adult males
-action: adult females

-testosterone
-zona reticularis
-none
-stimulates pubic hair formation in males and females
-none
-muscle mass, blood cell formation and supports libido

67

adrenal cortex: regulation of cortisol secretion
-stimuli
-3 steps (structures)

-stress or low blood glucose levels
-1. hypothalamus
2. anterior pituitary
3. adrenal cortex

68

adrenal cortex: regulation of cortisol secretion
-hypothalamus

produces corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH)

69

adrenal cortex: regulation of cortisol secretion
-anterior pituitary

produces adrenocorticotropin hormone (ACTH)

70

adrenal cortex: regulation of cortisol secretion
-adrenal cortex

produces cortisol = acts on target tissues to increase fat and protein breakdown

71

adrenal cortex: regulation of cortisol secretion
-negative feedback

cortisol released has inhibitory effect on CRH and ACTH release

72

endocrine glands: the pancreas
-location
-endocrine portion of the pancreas %
-4 cell types

-abdominal cavity
-~1%
-1. alpha
2. beta
3. delta
4. F cells

73

endocrine glands: the pancreas
-hormones secreted

1. insulin
2. glucagon
3. growth hormone-inhibiting hormone
4. pancreatic polypeptide

74

endocrine glands: the pancreas
-insulin released by
-glucagon released by
-growth hormone-inhibiting hormone released by
-pancreatic polypeptide

-beta cells
-alpha cells
-delta cells
-F cells

75

growth hormone-inhibiting hormone
-2 functions

1. surpresses release of insulin and glucagon
2. slows rate of food absorption and enzyme secretion along digestive tract

76

pancreatic polypeptide
-2 functions

1. inhibits gall bladder contractions
2. regulates production of some pancreatic enzymes

77

regulation of insulin and glucagon secretion
-what is pancreas is able to ___ glucose levels
-does it require stimulation from nervous/endocrine system?

-self-monitor
-does not

78

regulation of insulin secretion
-type of hormone
-secreted in response to
-promotes

-peptide
-secreted in response to an increase in glucose concentration
-promotes the uptake of glucose by body cells

79

regulation of insulin secretion
-5 effects on target cell include

1. increases glucose uptake from blood
2. increases glucose utilization and ATP production
3. increases glycogen formation in lover and skeletal muscle
4. increases triglyceride formation in adipose tissue
5. increase AA absorption and protein synthesis

80

regulation of insulin secretion
-result

excess glucose removed from blood

81

regulation of glucagon secretion
-stimulated by
-target cells
-goal

-by a decrease in glucose concentration
-liver, skeletal muscle and adipose tissue
-to mobilize energy reserves

82

regulation of glucagon secretion
-2 effects
-result

-1. increases breakdown of glycogen in muscle and liver
2. increases breakdown of triglycerides in adipose tissue
-release more glucose into blood

83

diabetes
-definition

general term used to classify a disease with excessive urination

84

diabetes mellitus
-caused by
-defintion

-inadequate production or insensitivity to insulin
-increased blood glucose levels but cells are unable to take it up = tissues become starved

85

3 effects of increased blood glucose levels

1. overwhelms kidneys (produces large vol of "sweet" urine)
2. disturbs neural function and causes muscle weakness
3. endocrine system responds as if glucose is in short supply

86

endocrine system responds as if glucose is in short supply
- effects
-overall effects

-increases glucagon and glucocorticoids
-increases fat metabolism = blood pH decreases

87

3 complications of diabetes mellitus

1. blindess
2. cataracts
3. kidney failure

88

complications of diabetes mellitus: blindnesss

neurological problems

89

complications of diabetes mellitus: cataracts

high risk for heart attack or stroke

90

complications of diabetes mellitus: kidney failure

vascular problems and erectile dysfunction