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1

anatomy of the respiratory system
-6 main structures

1. Nose (upper)
2. pharynx (upper)
3. larynx (lower)
4. trachea (lower)
5. bronchi (lower)
6. lung (lower)

2

the nose and nasal cavity
-lined by what
-6 structures
-2 functions

-respiratory epithelium
-1. superior nasal conchae
2. middle nasal conchae
3. inferior nasal conchae
4. external nare
5. hard palate
6. internal nare
-1. primary passage way for air
2. filters, warms and humidifies air

3

respiratory epithelium
-type of epithelium
-modified with what

-pseudostratified columnar epithelium
-cilia and contains globlet cells

4

the pharynx
-3 parts

1. nasopharynx
2. oropharynx
3. laryngopharynx

5

nasopharynx
-lined by
-contains what 3 structures

-lined by respiratory epithelium
-contains internal nare, entrance to auditory tube and pharyngeal tonsil

6

oropharynx
-lined by
-contains what 2 structures

-lined by stratified squamous epithelium
-lingual tonsil and palatine tonsil

7

laryngopharynx
-lined by

lined by stratified squamous epithelium

8

the larynx
-made of
-begins at
-anterior view (4 structures)

-mostly hyaline cartilage
-begins at ~ C4 and ends at ~C6
-1. hyoid bone
2. thyroid cartilage
3. laryngeal prominence
4. cricoid cartilage

9

glottis

air leaves pharynx and enters larynx through this

10

hyoid bone
-function

serves as an attachment site for muscles of the larynx, pharynx and tongue

11

thyroid cartilage

incomplete cartilage ring

12

laryngeal prominence
-known as

adam's apple

13

cricoid cartilage

a complete cartilage ring

14

3 structures located inside the larynx

1. vestibular ligament
2. vocal ligament
3. corniculate cartilage

15

3 structures located on the posterior side of the larynx

1. epiglottis
2. arytenoid cartilage
3. cricoid cartilage

16

epiglottis

elastic cartilage

17

what is the function of the corniculate cartilage and the arytenoid cartilage

function in the opening and closing of the glottis

18

2 functions of the larynx

1. prevents liquids and solids from entering the larynx
2. sound production

19

what structure folds over and covers the glottis during swallowing

the epiglottis

20

sound production

air passes through glottis and vibrates vocal folds which produce sound waves

21

vocal fold
-what does voice range depend on
-what does pitch depend on
-what does loudness depend on

-depends on the length of the vocal folds
-depends on the tension applied to the vocal folds
-depends on the force of air passing across the vocal folds

22

short vocal folds = ____ sound
long vocal folds = ____ sound

-higher
-deeper

23

increased tension on vocal folds = ____ pitch
decreased tension = ___ pitch

-higher
-lower

24

more air passing across vocal folds =

louder voice

25

phonation

sound production at the larynx

26

articulation
-what modifies the produced sound
-what is also important for speech

-tongue, teeth and lips
-nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses

27

the trachea
-lined by
-contains
-stretches from
-___ shaped cartilage

-lined by respiratory epithelium
-contains 15-20 tracheal cartilages
-C6 to T5
-C shaped

28

function of tracheal cartilages

keeps trachea from collapsing

29

trachealis muscle
-relaxation
-contraction
-allows for

-increases the diameter of the trachea (sympathetic stimulation)
-decreases the diameter of the trachea
-distortion as food passes through esophagus

30

what in the trachea moves mucus against gravity

cilia and it pushes mucus and trapped particles towards pharynx and into esophagus