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1

anatomy of the respiratory system
-6 main structures

1. Nose (upper)
2. pharynx (upper)
3. larynx (lower)
4. trachea (lower)
5. bronchi (lower)
6. lung (lower)

2

the nose and nasal cavity
-lined by what
-6 structures
-2 functions

-respiratory epithelium
-1. superior nasal conchae
2. middle nasal conchae
3. inferior nasal conchae
4. external nare
5. hard palate
6. internal nare
-1. primary passage way for air
2. filters, warms and humidifies air

3

respiratory epithelium
-type of epithelium
-modified with what

-pseudostratified columnar epithelium
-cilia and contains globlet cells

4

the pharynx
-3 parts

1. nasopharynx
2. oropharynx
3. laryngopharynx

5

nasopharynx
-lined by
-contains what 3 structures

-lined by respiratory epithelium
-contains internal nare, entrance to auditory tube and pharyngeal tonsil

6

oropharynx
-lined by
-contains what 2 structures

-lined by stratified squamous epithelium
-lingual tonsil and palatine tonsil

7

laryngopharynx
-lined by

lined by stratified squamous epithelium

8

the larynx
-made of
-begins at
-anterior view (4 structures)

-mostly hyaline cartilage
-begins at ~ C4 and ends at ~C6
-1. hyoid bone
2. thyroid cartilage
3. laryngeal prominence
4. cricoid cartilage

9

glottis

air leaves pharynx and enters larynx through this

10

hyoid bone
-function

serves as an attachment site for muscles of the larynx, pharynx and tongue

11

thyroid cartilage

incomplete cartilage ring

12

laryngeal prominence
-known as

adam's apple

13

cricoid cartilage

a complete cartilage ring

14

3 structures located inside the larynx

1. vestibular ligament
2. vocal ligament
3. corniculate cartilage

15

3 structures located on the posterior side of the larynx

1. epiglottis
2. arytenoid cartilage
3. cricoid cartilage

16

epiglottis

elastic cartilage

17

what is the function of the corniculate cartilage and the arytenoid cartilage

function in the opening and closing of the glottis

18

2 functions of the larynx

1. prevents liquids and solids from entering the larynx
2. sound production

19

what structure folds over and covers the glottis during swallowing

the epiglottis

20

sound production

air passes through glottis and vibrates vocal folds which produce sound waves

21

vocal fold
-what does voice range depend on
-what does pitch depend on
-what does loudness depend on

-depends on the length of the vocal folds
-depends on the tension applied to the vocal folds
-depends on the force of air passing across the vocal folds

22

short vocal folds = ____ sound
long vocal folds = ____ sound

-higher
-deeper

23

increased tension on vocal folds = ____ pitch
decreased tension = ___ pitch

-higher
-lower

24

more air passing across vocal folds =

louder voice

25

phonation

sound production at the larynx

26

articulation
-what modifies the produced sound
-what is also important for speech

-tongue, teeth and lips
-nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses

27

the trachea
-lined by
-contains
-stretches from
-___ shaped cartilage

-lined by respiratory epithelium
-contains 15-20 tracheal cartilages
-C6 to T5
-C shaped

28

function of tracheal cartilages

keeps trachea from collapsing

29

trachealis muscle
-relaxation
-contraction
-allows for

-increases the diameter of the trachea (sympathetic stimulation)
-decreases the diameter of the trachea
-distortion as food passes through esophagus

30

what in the trachea moves mucus against gravity

cilia and it pushes mucus and trapped particles towards pharynx and into esophagus

31

lungs
-location
-separated from eachother by what
-lined by

-within in the thoracic cavity (lateral sides)
-mediastinum
-lined by a serous membrane called the pleura

32

pleura
-2 types

1. parietal pleura
2. visceral pleura

33

parietal pleura

adhered to chest wall

34

visceral pleura

adhered to lung tissue

35

pleural cavity
-contains
-function

contains fluid
-serves as a lubricant and helps to keep the lungs open

36

right lung
-number of lobes and names
-number and name of fissures

-3; superior, middle and inferior
-2, horizonal fissure and oblique fissure

37

left lung
-number of lobes and names
-number of fissures and names
-special feature

-2; superior and inferior
-1; oblique fissure
-cardiac notch

38

what does the horizontal fissure separate in the right lung
-oblique?

-superior and middle lobe
-middle and inferior lobe

39

what does the oblique fissure separate in the left lung

-superior and inferior lobe

40

hilum of the right lung contains

pulmonary arteries, veins and secondary bronchi

41

the bronchial tree
-definition
-2 functional categories

-primary bronchi and their branches
-1. conducting zone
2. functional (respiratory) zone

42

conducting zone

terminal bronchioles upward

43

functional (respiratory) zone

respiratory bronchioles and alveoli

44

general consideration as you proceed down the bronchial tree

1. decrease in cartilage
2. increased in smooth muscle
3. decrease in columnar epithelium
4. columnar epithelium
5. decrease in number of cilia

45

what is smooth muscle innervated by
-sym
-parasym

by ANS
-bronchodilation
-bronchoconstriction

46

traveling down bronchial tree
- 9 structures

1. trachea
2. primary bronchus
3. secondary bronchus
4. tertiary bronchus
5. smaller bronchi
6. bronchioles
7. terminal bronchioles (conducting zone and up)
8. respiratory bronchioles (respiratory zone and down)
9.alveolar sac

47

alveolar sac
-location
-epithelium

pulmonary lobule
-simple squamous epithelium

48

the pulmonary lobule
-definition
-contains what

-functional unit of the lung
-the pulmonary artery and vein, respiratory passageways, lymphatics and nerves

49

branch of pulmonary artery carries what type of blood
-pulmonary vein?

-deO2 blood
-O2 blood

50

structures of the respiratory

1. respiratory bronchiole
2. arteriole
3. capillary beds
4. branch of pulmonary vein
5. alveolar duct
6. alveoli
7. connective tissue

51

connective tissue of the pulmonary lobule contains

trabeculae

52

trabeculae
-contains
-function

-smooth muscle, elastic fibers and lymphatic vessels
-help to divide lobes into smaller compartments (lobules)

53

the alveolus and respiratory membrane
-type of tissue
-2 cells types

simple squamous epithelium
-1. pneumocyte I
2. pneumocyte II

54

pneumocyte I

very thin, squamous epithelium

55

pneumocyte II

"septal cells", produces surfactant

56

surfactant
-secreted onto where
-2 functions
-not produced until when

-onto alveolar surfaces
-1. acts to reduce surface tension
2. prevents alveoli from collapsing
-6th fetal month

57

absence of surfactant

alveoli collapse and gas exchange cannot occur

58

respiratory membrane
-definition
-3 layers

-where gas exchange occurs
-1. squamous epithelial cells linings the alveolus
2. the endothelial cells lining the capillary
3. fused basal lamina that lie between the alveolar and endothelial cells

59

why can the diffusion of CO2 and O2 occur very rapidly?

because the distance is short and gases are lipid soluable

60

2 integrated processes of respiration

1. external respiration
2. internal respiration

61

external respiration
-definition
-between what

exchange of O2 and CO2 between interstitial fluids and the external environment
-lungs and blood in pulmonary capillaries

62

internal respiration
-definition
-between what

-exchanges of O2 and CO2 by body cells
-between systematic capillaries and tissues

63

3 steps involved in respiration

1. pulmonary ventilation
2. gas diffusion
3. transport of O2 and CO2

64

pulmonary ventilation
-definition
-function

breathing; physical movement of air into and out of lungs
-maintain adequate movement of air into and out of alveoli

65

gas diffusion
-exchanges where

across the respiratory membrane and across capillary walls between blood and tissues

66

transport of O2 and CO2
-exchanges where

between alveolar capillaries and capillary beds in tissues

67

hypoxia

low tissue O2 levels

68

Anoxia
-definition
-causes
-ex

-no O2 in tissues
-rapid cell death
-stroke, heart attack

69

Gas pressure

pressure of a gas exerted by the collision of gas molecules with the walls of a container

70

boyle's law
-definition
-increased volume
-decreased volume

-for gas in a closed container at constant temp; pressure is inversely proportional to volume
-decreased pressure
-increased pressure

71

2 types of pressures in the respiratory system

1. intrapulmonary pressure
2. intrapleural pressure

72

intrapulmonary pressure

pressure inside the respiratory tract which varies

73

intrapleural pressure
-between what
-pressure is generally ___
-known as a
-function

-lungs and chest wall
-negative
-vacuum
-helps keep lungs open during respiration

74

the mechanisms of breathing: inspiration
-3 steps

1. external intercostals contract which pulls chest upward
2. diaphragm contracts and moves down which increases the depth of the thorax
3. overall increase in volume of thoracic cavity

75

the mechanisms of breathing: expiration
-3 steps

-passive (generally)
1. external intercostals relax which causes chest to depress
2. diaphragm relaxes which moves upward; decreases depth of throrax
3. overall decrease in volumes of throacic cavity

76

forced expiration

abdominal muscles and internal intercostals contract