Chapter 19: Blood Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 19: Blood Deck (90):
1

What is blood?

It is fluid connective tissue

2

2 components of fluid connective tissue

1. cells
2. plasma (matrix or ground substance)

3

5 functions of blood

1. Transportation
2. Regulates pH and ion composition
3. Prevents blood loss
4. Defense against toxins and pathogens
5. Stabilizes body temp

4

What does blood transport?
-4 things

1. Gases
2. Nutrients
3. Hormones
4. Waste products

5

What does regulating pH and ion composition help to maintain?
-Neutralize?

-Maintains K+ or Ca++ in tissues
-neutralizes lactic acid generated by muscle tissue

6

How does blood prevent blood loss?

By clotting

7

What in blood is known as defense?
-2 things

1. White blood cells
2. antibody

8

How does blood stabilize body temp?

Absorbs heat generated by muscle tissue and redistributes it

9

Sample of whole blood consists of 2 things

1. plasma
2. formed elements

10

what 3 things does formed elements consist of

1. RBC
2. WBC
3. Platelets

11

Red blood cells are known as?
-White blood cells are known as?

1. erythrocytes
2. leukocytes

12

pH level in blood
-average
-range

-7.4
-7.35-7.45

13

Blood temp
-celcius
-Fahrenheit

-38C
-100.4F

14

Viscocity of blood
-meaning
-how much

-thickness
-5x as viscous as water

15

Salt concentration of blood

0.9% sodium chloride

16

Percent of body weight

7%

17

Volume of blood
-female
-male

-4-5 L
-5-6 L

18

Centrifugation of blood allows

separation of plasma and formed elements

19

How is blood collected

by venipuncture

20

Buffy coat
-definition
-what does it contain

-small semi clear layer directly above packed RBCs
-WBCs and platelets

21

Hematocrit
-definition
-formula

-% of formed element in a volume of whole blood
-volume of packed RBCs/volume of whole blood x 100

22

Hematocrit in
-males
-females
-changes

-46 (range 40-54) because of testosterone
-42 (range 37-47)
-Dehydration, internal bleeding, problems with RBC formation

23

Composition of plasma

1. water (92%)
2. plasma proteins (7%)
3. other solutes (1%)

24

Plasma proteins
-how much percent are made and secreted by the liver
-4 proteins

-90%
1. albumins
2. globulins
3. fibrinogen
4. regulatory proteins

25

Albumins
-percent
-abundance?
-function

-60%
-most abundant
-transports fatty acid, thyroid hormones, some steroid hormones and other substances

26

globulins
-percent
-what are they?
-function

-35%
-antibodies-immunoglobulins
-transport globulins - bind small ions, hormones and compounds

27

fibrinogen
-percent
-important for
-converted to
-what does it form

-4%
-blood clotting
-converted to fibrin
-forms long strands for blood clotting

28

Regulatory proteins
-percent
-includes 2 things

-

29

3 Glycoproteins

1. TSH
2. FSH
3. LH

30

Other solutes
-percent
-3 things

-1%
1. Electrolytes
2. Organic nutrients
3. organic wastes

31

Electrolytes
-8

1. Na+
2. K+
3. Ca 2+
4. Mg 2+
5. Cl-
6. HCo3-
7. HPO4-
8. SO4 2-

32

Organic nutrients
-what is it used for
-3 things

-ATP production, growth and maintenance of cells
-lipids, carbs and AA

33

Organic wastes
-5 wastes

1. urea
2. uric acid
3. creatinine
4. bilirubin
5. ammonium ions

34

How much percentage does erythrocytes account for of formed elements?

99.9%

35

How many RBCs do we have per mm3 of blood?
-males
-females
-why is it different?

-4.5-6.3 million/mm3
-4.2-5.5 million/mm3
-because RBC formation is affected by androgens and not by estrogens

36

What is the structure of an erythrocyte?

bi-concave disc

37

Structure allows for 3 important effects on RBC function

1. give each RBC a large surface area to volume ratio
2. enables RBCs to form stacks
3. enables RBCs to bend and flex when entering small capillaries

38

RBC
-lifespan; why?
-function

-120 days because in lacks a nucleus and ribosome prevents synthesis of new proteins (unable to repair itself)
-carry O2 to tissues and remove CO2 which is carried on molecules of hemoglobin

39

Anemia

Any condition when the quantity of RBCs is lower than normal

40

Polycythemia

Any condition when the quantity of RBCs is higher than normal

41

Hemoglobin
-percent of RBCs intracellular protein
-number of protein chains
-number of heme groups
-2 functions

-95%
-4 (2 alpha and 2 beta)
-4 (a ring containing iron)
-1. Iron in heme group interacts with O2
2. The alpha and beta chains interact with CO2

42

1 heme = how many O2

1

43

-High plasma levels of O2
-Low plasma levels of O2

-Hb binds O2
-Hb releases O2

44

Oxyhemoglobin
-compound
-definition
-color

-HbO2
-O2 bound to heme group
-bright red

45

Deoxyhemoglobin
-definition
-color

-heme group not bound to O2
-Dark red, burgundy in color

46

Carbaminohemoglobin
-compound
-definition

-HbCO2
-CO2 bound to alpha and beta chains

47

Erythropoiesis
-definition
-occurrence
-fetal period
-adult

-formation of red blood cells
-appears during 3rd week of development
-begins in yolk sac
-occurs exclusively in red bone marrow

48

Where is red bone marrow found?
-7 places

1. vertebrae
2. sternum
3. ribs
4. skull
5. scapula
6. pelvis
7. proximal limb bones

49

Erythropoiesis stages
-4 stages

1. myeloid stem cell
2. proerythroblast
3. reticulocyte
4. mature red blood cell

50

is the myeloid stem cell only for red blood cells?

no

51

Reticulocyte contains

80% of Hb found in a mature RBC

52

3 requirements for normal RBC development

1. amino acids
2. iron
3. vitamins (B12, B6 and folic acid)

53

What does B12 require

an intrinsic factor in order to be absorbed by small intestine

54

what hormone is required for the regulation of RBC development?
-3 others

-Erythopoietin
-thyroxine, androgens and growth hormone

55

where is erythopoietin made

in the kidneys

56

When in erythropoietin released?
-4
-what do all of these result in?

1. During anemia
2. when blood flow to kidneys decline
3. O2 content of air in lungs decline
4. respiratory surface of lungs is damaged
-an overall decline in the O2 content of blood

57

2 effects when erythropoietin is released

1. stimulates increased cell division of erythroblasts
2. speeds up maturation of RBCs

58

RBC degradation (breakdown)
- Macrophage 10 steps

1. RBC undergoes phagocytosis
2. RBC is converted to hemoglobin (lysosome digests RBC)
3. Hemoglobin is broken down into protein chains and is converted to heme + globin (lysosome digests RBC)
4.Globin is converted to AA (lysosome digests RBC)
5. Heme is converted to biliverdin (green) OR the iron is released and transported through circulation
6. Biliverdin is converted to bilirubin (yellow)
7. Bilirubin is transported to liver through circulation
8. Bilirubin is secreted in bile to small intestine and travels to large intesting
9. bilirubin is converted to bilirubin derived products by bacteria and can go 2 ways ( to kidney or stay on the path of the large intestine)
10. Converted to urobilins stercobilins (yellow and brown) and turned into feces OR bilirubin derived products is absorbed into circulation, into kidney converted to urobilins (yellow) and turned into urine

59

RBC breakdown Hemolysis
-2 steps

1. RBC
2. 10% is hemolysized

60

Percentage of RBC engufled while undergoing macrophage

90%

61

Where is macrophage found?
-3 places

liver, spleen or bone marrow

62

4 blood groups

1. Type A
2. Type B
3. Type AB
4. Type O

63

antigen location

on surface of RBC

64

antibody location

found in blood plasma

65

Type A
-distribution in the US pop
-Antigen
-antibody

-40%
-has antigen A
-Has anti - B antibodies

66

Type B
-distribution in the US pop
-Antigen
-antibody

-10%
-has antigen B
-has anti-A antibodies

67

Type AB
-distribution in the US pop
-Antigen
-antibody

-4%
-has both antigen A and B
-has no antibodies

68

Type O
-distribution in the US pop
-Antigen
-antibody

-46%
-has neither antigen A or B
-has both anti A and anti-B antibodies

69

Agglutination

clumping; "likes" clump
1. You do not make antibodies that bind to antigens on your RBC
2. You make antibodies against antigens that are absent from your RBC

70

How do you find a compatible blood type for blood transfusions?

by cross matching recipients antibodies (plasma) to donor's antigens (cells)

71

What are we concerned about when transfusing blood?

the recipients antibodies

72

Rh factor
-where are the Rh antibodies not normally found
-when will Rh antibodies form
-where was it discovered
-if an Rh protein is present is Rh - or +; percentage of pop
-if the Rh protein is not present is Rh - or +; percentage of pop

-in plasma
-when an Rh- person is exposed to Rh+ blood (in transfusion or pregnancy)
-surface antigen 1st discovered in Rhesus monkeys
-Rh+ ( ~85%)
-Rh- (~15%)

73

Hemolytic disease of the newborn
-definition
-Rh+ mom and Rh- fetus =
-3 steps (mom Rh- and fetus Rh+)

-moms antibodies (Rh+) attack fetal RBCs
-no problems
-1. moms blood is exposed to fetal blood during the delivery process (1st pregnancy)
2. mom produces antibodies to Rh+ fetal blood (1st)
3. moms Rh antibodies generated after 1st pregnancy cross the placenta and attacks fetal RBCs (can be fatal if not treated)

74

Prevention of second pregnancy attacks

provide drug RhoGam during prenancy to prevent Rh antibodies from forming in mom

75

Leukocytes
-4 general properties

1. less numerous than RBCs (5000 - 10000 / mm3)
2. have a nucleus
3. no hemoglobin
4. defense - immunity

76

where is the majority of leukocytes found?

in tissues; they squeeze through blood vessel walls through diapedesis

77

what are the leukocytes attracted by?

chemical stimuli known as chemotaxis

78

classification of RBC
-2 major groups

1. granular leukocytes
2. agranular leukocytes

79

Granular leukocytes
-defintion
-3 examples

-contains large cytoplasmic granules
-1. neutrophils
2. eosinophils
3. basophils

80

Agranular leukocytes
-definition
-2 examples

-do not contain large cytoplasmic granules
-1. monocytes
2. lymphocytes

81

Neutrophils
-percentage
-thin or dense nucleus
-number of lobes
-color of granules
-mobile or motionless
-function
-lifespan
-known as

-50-70%
-dense semented nucleus
-3-5 lobes (beads on a string)
-pale
-highly mobile (first responders)
-attack and digest bacteria labeled with antibodies
-very short lifespan (30 minutes to 10 hours)
-polumorphonuclear leukocytes

82

Eosinophils
-percentage
-contain what type of nucleus
-color of granules
-what do they release
-when do they increase in number
-function

-2-4%
-bi-lobed nucleus
-deep red granules
-release toxic compounds that kill multi cellular parasites
-during allergic reactions
-help reduce debris and spread of inflammation

83

Basophil
-percentage
-how many granules
-shape of nucleus
-migrate to where
-release what 2 things

-

84

Monocyte
-percentage
-shape of nucleus
-3 functions

-2-8%
-large oval/kidney bean shaped nucleus
-1. enters peripheral tissues to become a macrophage
2. phagocytosis
3. release chemicals to attract neutrophils and monocytes

85

Lymphocytes
-percentage
-nucleus
-2 functions
-known as

-20-30%
-large nucleus surrounded by thick halo of cytoplasm
-1. migrate through blood into tissues and back
2. defend against specific pathogens
-T and B cells

86

Production of platelets
-4 steps

1. hemocytoblasts
2. myeloid stem cells
3. progenitor cells
4. megakaryocyte
5. platelets

87

production of granulocytes
-8 steps

1. myeloblast
2. myelocyte
3. band cells
4. granulocytes

88

productions of monoblast
-6 steps

1. hemocytoblasts
2. myeloid stem cells
3. progenitor cells
4. blast cells (monoblast)
5. promonocyte
6. monocyte

89

production of lymphocytes
-5 steps

1. hemocytoblasts
2. lymphoid stem cells
3. lymphoblast
4. prolymphocyte
5. lymphocyte

90

Regulation of WBC production
-CSF (meaning and definition)
-what regulates lymphocyte

-Colony stimulating factors; stimulates production of monocytes and granulocytes
-exposure to antigen