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1

lymphatic system
-4 components

1. lymph
2. lymphatic vessels
3. lymphoid tissues and organs
4. lymphocytes

2

lymph
-known as
-similar to what

-interstitial fluid
-similar to plasma but contains lower amounts of protein

3

lymphocytes

provide defense against infections and other environmental hazards

4

3 functions of lymphatic system

1. fluid balances
2. fat absorption
3. defense

5

fluid balance
-entering and exiting

more fluids exit the capillaries than is reabsorbed
-extra fluid enters the lymphatics and is returning to the blood

6

fat absorption
-where does it absorb fat from

digestive system

7

defense
-what filters microorganisms
-what are defense cells called

microorganisms are filtered from lymph by lymph nodes and from blood by spleen
-lymphocytes

8

hydrostatic pressure
-definition
-what does high HP do

the pressure exerted by a liquid in response to an applied force
-tends to force H2O out of solution

9

what contributes to hydrostatic pressure of the capillaries

blood pressure

10

osmotic pressure
-definition
-what does indication of the force do
-what does high OP do

-the pressure is required to stop the flow of water by osmosis
-moves the water into a solution because of its solute concentration
-tends to draw H2O into a solution into a solution

11

what contributes to the osmotic pressure of the blood

plasma proteins (mostly albumins)

12

Arterial side
-water moves in or out
-hydrostatic pressure __ osmotic pressure
-fluid in capillary
-produces ___L/day of filtrates

-moves out
-greater than
-is forced out of capillary = filtration
-24 L/day

13

Venule side
-water moves in or out
-hydrostatic pressure __ osmotic pressure
-fluid is
-produces ___ L/day of filtrates

-in
-less than
-forced into capillaries = reabsorption (occurs because of osmosis)
-20.4 L/day

14

what is the difference in liters produced by the arterial side and the venule side
-what is done with it

-difference of ~3.6 L/day of fluid
-it is reabsorbed into lymphatics and returned to blood

15

Lymphatic vessels
-definition

carry lymph from peripheral tissues to the venous system

16

lymphatic capillaries
-definition
-present where
-absent where
-1 component

-where the lymphatic networks begin
-present in almost every tissue and organ in body
-absent in areas that lack a blood supply
-lacteals

17

lacteals
-definition
-function

lymphatic capillaries in the small intestine
-transport of absorbed lipids

18

how is the lymphatic capillaries different from blood capillaries
-2

1. they originate as pockets rather than forming continuous tubes
-have large diameters and thinner walls

19

2 major lymph-collecting vessels

1. superficial lymphatics
2. deep lymphatics

20

superficial lymphatics location

located in the subcutaneous layers deep to the skin

21

deep lymphatics
-function

drains muscles, joints, and other deep structures

22

relationship between the lymphatic ducts and the venous system

large lymphatic vessels converge to form trunks which empty into 1 or 2 large ducts

23

2 types of ducts

1. thoracic duct
2. right lymphatic duct

24

throacic duct
-base
-empties into what

-cisterna chyli which receives lymph from lower parts of the body
-left subclavian vein

25

right lymphatic duct
-delivers where
-empties into what

-lymph from right side of body above diaphragm
-empties into right subclavian vein

26

lymphoid tissue
-structure
-location
-each nodule has what

-densely packed lymphocytes within areolar CT
-deep to epithelium, digestive and urinary tracts
-each nodule has a "germinal center" which contain dividing lymphocytes

27

MALT
-what does it stand for
-definition
-component
-what does it have in it

-Mucosa, associated lymphoid tissue
-lymphoid tissue linked to digestive system
-aggregated lymphoid nodule
-areas of small intestine and appendix

28

tonsil
-definition
-3 types
-what does it have
-contains what

-large lymphoid nodules in the wall of the pharynx
-pharyngeal, palatine and lingual
-multiple germinal centers
-crypts

29

crypts
-definition
-function

-invaginated outer edges
-trap material to be screened by lymphocytes for pathogens

30

locations of the lymph nodes
-typically found in together or separate
-function
-4 main regions

-in clusters
-receive lymph from specific regions of the body
-cervical, axillary, lumbar and inguinal