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Flashcards in chapter 22 Deck (84):
1

lymphatic system
-4 components

1. lymph
2. lymphatic vessels
3. lymphoid tissues and organs
4. lymphocytes

2

lymph
-known as
-similar to what

-interstitial fluid
-similar to plasma but contains lower amounts of protein

3

lymphocytes

provide defense against infections and other environmental hazards

4

3 functions of lymphatic system

1. fluid balances
2. fat absorption
3. defense

5

fluid balance
-entering and exiting

more fluids exit the capillaries than is reabsorbed
-extra fluid enters the lymphatics and is returning to the blood

6

fat absorption
-where does it absorb fat from

digestive system

7

defense
-what filters microorganisms
-what are defense cells called

microorganisms are filtered from lymph by lymph nodes and from blood by spleen
-lymphocytes

8

hydrostatic pressure
-definition
-what does high HP do

the pressure exerted by a liquid in response to an applied force
-tends to force H2O out of solution

9

what contributes to hydrostatic pressure of the capillaries

blood pressure

10

osmotic pressure
-definition
-what does indication of the force do
-what does high OP do

-the pressure is required to stop the flow of water by osmosis
-moves the water into a solution because of its solute concentration
-tends to draw H2O into a solution into a solution

11

what contributes to the osmotic pressure of the blood

plasma proteins (mostly albumins)

12

Arterial side
-water moves in or out
-hydrostatic pressure __ osmotic pressure
-fluid in capillary
-produces ___L/day of filtrates

-moves out
-greater than
-is forced out of capillary = filtration
-24 L/day

13

Venule side
-water moves in or out
-hydrostatic pressure __ osmotic pressure
-fluid is
-produces ___ L/day of filtrates

-in
-less than
-forced into capillaries = reabsorption (occurs because of osmosis)
-20.4 L/day

14

what is the difference in liters produced by the arterial side and the venule side
-what is done with it

-difference of ~3.6 L/day of fluid
-it is reabsorbed into lymphatics and returned to blood

15

Lymphatic vessels
-definition

carry lymph from peripheral tissues to the venous system

16

lymphatic capillaries
-definition
-present where
-absent where
-1 component

-where the lymphatic networks begin
-present in almost every tissue and organ in body
-absent in areas that lack a blood supply
-lacteals

17

lacteals
-definition
-function

lymphatic capillaries in the small intestine
-transport of absorbed lipids

18

how is the lymphatic capillaries different from blood capillaries
-2

1. they originate as pockets rather than forming continuous tubes
-have large diameters and thinner walls

19

2 major lymph-collecting vessels

1. superficial lymphatics
2. deep lymphatics

20

superficial lymphatics location

located in the subcutaneous layers deep to the skin

21

deep lymphatics
-function

drains muscles, joints, and other deep structures

22

relationship between the lymphatic ducts and the venous system

large lymphatic vessels converge to form trunks which empty into 1 or 2 large ducts

23

2 types of ducts

1. thoracic duct
2. right lymphatic duct

24

throacic duct
-base
-empties into what

-cisterna chyli which receives lymph from lower parts of the body
-left subclavian vein

25

right lymphatic duct
-delivers where
-empties into what

-lymph from right side of body above diaphragm
-empties into right subclavian vein

26

lymphoid tissue
-structure
-location
-each nodule has what

-densely packed lymphocytes within areolar CT
-deep to epithelium, digestive and urinary tracts
-each nodule has a "germinal center" which contain dividing lymphocytes

27

MALT
-what does it stand for
-definition
-component
-what does it have in it

-Mucosa, associated lymphoid tissue
-lymphoid tissue linked to digestive system
-aggregated lymphoid nodule
-areas of small intestine and appendix

28

tonsil
-definition
-3 types
-what does it have
-contains what

-large lymphoid nodules in the wall of the pharynx
-pharyngeal, palatine and lingual
-multiple germinal centers
-crypts

29

crypts
-definition
-function

-invaginated outer edges
-trap material to be screened by lymphocytes for pathogens

30

locations of the lymph nodes
-typically found in together or separate
-function
-4 main regions

-in clusters
-receive lymph from specific regions of the body
-cervical, axillary, lumbar and inguinal

31

cervical lymph nodes

drains lymph from head and neck

32

axillary lymph nodes

drains lymph from breast, axilla and upper arm

33

lumbar lymph nodes

drains lymph from abdominal organs

34

inguinal lymph nodes

drains lymph from pelvis and lower leg

35

what is the importance of lymph node clusters

lymph is filtered as it passes from node to node which insures adequate removal of antigens

36

the structure of a lymph node
-7

1. afferent lymphatic
2. subcapsular space
3. outer cortex
4. deep cortex
5. medulla
6. efferent vessel
7. capsule

37

capsule
-made of
-definition

-dense CT covering
-separates node from surrounding tissues

38

afferent lymphatic

where lymph enters

39

subcapsular space
-what does it contain

-contains macrophages and dendritic cells

40

dendritic cells

involved in initiation of an immune response

41

outer cortex
-what does it contain

B cells within the germinal centers

42

deep cortex
-contains what

T cells

43

medulla
-contains what

B cells and plasma cells organized in medullary cords

44

efferent vessel

where lymph leaves

45

function of a lymph node
-4

1. filters lymph
2. removes debris and pathogens
3. antigens are presented B and T cells
4. place where immune response is initiated

46

thymus
-location
-largest when?
-2 components
-function

-in the mediastinum
-largest during childhood, decreases in size throughout adulthood
-cortex and medulla
-produces hormones called thymosins

47

cortex of the thymus

where T lymphocytes are dividing

48

medulla of the thymus

where the mature T cells are

49

thymosins

necessary for the maturation of T cells

50

spleen
-definition
-3 components

-largest collection of lymphoid tissue in the body
-red pulp, white pulp of splenic nodule, hilum

51

red pulp of spleen contains what

large quantities of RBCs, macrophages and lymphocytes

52

white pulp of splenic nodule
-similar to what
-contains what

-lymphoid nodule
-large quanities of macrophages, dendrtitc cells and lymphocytes

53

3 functions of the spleen

1. removal of abnormal blood cells and other blood components
2. storage of iron recycled from RBCs
3. initiation of immune response by B cells and T cells in response to antigens circulating in blood

54

hilum of the spleen

where vessels enters and exits

55

antigens
-definition
-4 types of antigens

-chemical targets
-1. proteins
2. lipids
3. oligosaccharides
4. nucleic acids

56

foreign antigens
-location

on pathogens, donated tissues and cancer cells

57

self antigens
-location

on cells

58

2 general types of defense

1. innate (nonspecific) defense
2. adaptive (specific) defense

59

innate defense
-definition
-present when

-does not distinguish one type of threat from another (same response regardless of pathogen)
-present at birth (genetic)

60

adaptive defense
-develops when
-responds when
-function

-develops after birth
-depends on activities of specific lymphocytes
-protects against particular threats

61

adaptive defenses
-4 properties
-2 forms

-specificity, versatility, memory and tolerance
-innate immunity and acquired immunity

62

specificity of immunity

a specific defense is activated by a specific antigen
-response targets that antigen and no others

63

versatility of immunity
-definition
-what does it insure

the immune systems consists of a large diverse population of lymphocytes
-insures the immune system can confront an antigen at any time

64

memory of immunity
-definition
-what is it able to
-can induce what

-the immune system has specific cells called "memory cells"
-able to remember antigens they have already seen
-can induce a stronger, faster response the next time the antigen is encountered

65

tolerance of immunity
-definition
-ex

-immune system does not respond to all antigens
-the immune system generally ignores normal tissues

66

innate immunity
-present when
-has no relationship to what
-response is generally

-at birth
-no relationship to previous exposure
-generally non specific

67

acquired immunity
-definition
-not present when
-2 types

-acquire immunity against a specific antigen after exposure
-at birth
-active immunity and passive immunity

68

active immunity
-definition
-2 types

-develops after exposure to an antigen
-1. naturally acquired active immunity
2. induced active immunity

69

naturally acquired active immunity
-definition
-ex

-immunity develops because of natural exposure to antigens
-chicken pox

70

induced active immunity
-definition
-ex

-immunity develops because of deliberate exposure to antigens
-vaccines

71

passive immunity
-definition
-2 types

-produced by transfer of antibodies from another source
-1. naturally acquired passive immunity
2. induced passive immunity

72

naturally acquired passive immunity
-definition

-mom's antibodies given to baby through breast milk
-mom's antibodies can cross the placenta

73

induced passive immunity
-definition
-example

-antibodies are administered to fight an infection or prevent a disease
-treatment of rabies

74

3 classes of lymphocytes

1. T cells
2. B cells
3. NK cells

75

T cells
-___ dependent
-how much %
-differentiates into 4 categories

-80%
-thymus
-1. cytotoxic T cells
2. Helper T cells
3. Suppressor T cells
4. Memory T cells

76

Cytotoxic T cells

attack foreign cells or body cells infected by viruses

77

Helper T cells

stimulate the activation and function of both T cells and B cells

78

Suppressor T cells

inhibit the activation and function of both T cells and B cells

79

Memory T cells

are a subset of T cells that respond to a previously encountered antigen

80

B cells
-____ dependent
-how much % of circulating lymphocytes
-1 subdivision

-bone marrow
-10-15%
-plasma cells

81

plasma cells

produce and secrete antibodies

82

NK cells
-how much % of circulating lymphocytes
-known as
-function

-5-10%
-natural killer cells
-attack abnormal cells: cancer cells to bacteria

83

formation and distribution of lymphocytes
-3 steps

1. thymus (thymic hormones)
2. red bone marrow
3. peripheral tissues

84

what does red bone marrow play a primary role in

maintenance of normal lymphocyte populations