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Flashcards in chapter 28 Deck (35):
1

2 functions of the reproductive system

1. ensures the continued existence of the human species
2. produces, stores, nourishes and transports male and female reproductive cells

2

4 basic components

1. gonads
2. ducts that transport gametes
3. accessory glands and organs
4. external genitalia

3

gonads
-definition
-2 functions

-reproductive organs
-1. produce reproductive cells (gametes)
2. produce hormones

4

ejaculatory duct

connection between ductus deferens and seminal vesicles

5

ductus deferens

transports sperm

6

penis

conducts urine and semen to outside

7

urethra (male)

passageway used by urinary and reproductive system

8

testes

male gonads

9

scrotum
-contains
-location
-function
-types of muscles

-testes
-outside of body
-important for sperm production because develop at a lower body temp
-dartos and cremaster

10

dartos and cremaster
-contraction
-relaxation

-pull testes closer to body
-moves them away from body

11

epididymis
-definiton
-2 functions

-start of male reproductive tract
-1. stores and protects sperm
2. facilitates their maturation

12

3 accessory glands of the male reproductive system

1. seminal vesicles
2. prostate gland
3. bulbo-urethral glands

13

seminal vesicles
-contributes what
-contains what
-alkaline or acidic

-60% to vol of semen
-high concentration of fructose, prostateglandins and fibrinogin
-slighly alkaline

14

prostate gland
-contains
-alkaline or acidic secretion
-function

-prostatic fluid
-alkaline
-produce seminal plasmin (antibiotic)

15

prostatic fluid

20-30% of vol of semen

16

bulbo-urethral glands
-function

-secretes thick alkaline mucus

17

what does the secretion of the mucus cause

neutralizes urinary acids in urethra and lubricates tip of penis

18

3 regions of urethra in the penis

1. prostate urethra
2. membranous urethra
3. spongy urethra

19

Location of :
-prostate urethra
-membranous urethra
-spongy urethra

-through prostate gland
-through urogenital diaphragm
-though penis

20

4 parts to penis

1. root
2. body
3. neck
4. glans

21

root of penis

attaches the penis to the body wall

22

body of penis

tubular wall and moveable

23

glans of penis

expanded end

24

what is removed during the circumcision

prepuce: fold of skin surrounding tip of penis

25

erectile tissue
-definition
-3 columns

-maze of vascular channels
-1. corpus cavernosa (2 columns)
2. corpus spongiosum

26

erectile tissue
-resting state
-parasympathetic stimulation

-arterial branches are closed and blood flow is restricted
-dilates arterial branches and tissues become engorged with blood = erection

27

testis
-develop where
-descend into
-septa

-in the abdomen
-the scrotum before birth
-divides testis into lobules

28

sperm production
-aka
-begins where
-order of sperm production (6)

-spermatogenesis
-in the seminiferous tubules
-1. spermatgonia
2. primary spermatocytes
3. secondary spermatocytes
4. spermatids
5. spermatids completing spermiogenesis
6. mature spermatozoa

29

spermatogonium

stem cells that divide by mitosis

30

primary spermatocytes

ndergo division by meiosis I

31

secondary spermatocytes

undergo division by meiosis II

32

spermatids

undergo spermiogenesis (physical maturation)

33

mature spermatozoa

travel through seminiferous tubules to rete testes then to epididymis

34

sperm production
3 steps

1. mitosis
2. meiosis
3. spermiogenesis

35

Spermproduction: mitosis

spermatogonium undergo cell division to produce 2 daugter cells