Chapter 21 part 2 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 21 part 2 Deck (73):
1

Peripheral resistance (PR)

opposition to blood flow caused by friction of blood against the wall of the blood vessel

2

6 factors affecting blood pressure

1. vessel diameter
2. vessel length
3. viscosity
4. cardiac output
5. Blood volume
6. blood flow

3

vessel diameter
-changes mostly occur in ____
-2 types

-arterioles
-1. vasoconstriction
2. vasodilation

4

vasoconstriction
-definition
-effect on PR
-effect on BP

-diameter decreases
-increases
-increases

5

vasodilation
-definition
-effect on PR
-effect on BP

-diameter increases
-decreases
-decrease

6

Vessel length
-2 functions

1. growth
2. weight gain

7

vessel length increases
-effect on PR
-effect on BP

-increases
-increases

8

vessel length decreases
-effect on PR
-effect on BP

-decreases
-decreases

9

viscosity
-definition

thickness of the blood (hematocrit)

10

increase thickness of blood
-effect on PR
-effect on BP

-increases
-increases

11

decrease thickness of blood
-effect on PR
-effect on BP

-decreases
-decreases

12

increased cardio output
-formula
-effect of BP

-HR x SV
-increases

13

decreased cardio output
-formula
-effect on BP

-HR x SV
-decreases

14

increased blood vol.
-effect on SV
-effect on CO
-effect on BP

-increases
-increases
-increases

15

decreased blood vol
-effect on SV
-effect on CO
-effect on BP

-decreases
-decreases
-decreases

16

increased blood flow
-effect on BP

-increases

17

decreased blood flow
-effect on BP

-decreases

18

Autoregulation
-definition
-2 components

-LOCAL regulation within capillary bed of tissue in response to localized changes
-1. local vasoconstrictors
2. local vasodilators

19

what does the term "local" mean

happens at the tissue level

20

local vasoconstrictors
-2 examples
-released by what
-response to

-1. protaglandins
2. thromboxanes
-activated platelets and WBCs
-damage to vessels

21

local vasodilators
-5 functions

1. decrease tissue O2
2. increase tissue CO2
3. increase K+ or H+
4. Histamines
5. increase temp

22

central nervous system
-definition
-when is it brought in
-location
-2 centers

adjusts cardiac output and peripheral resistance to maintain blood flow
-when autoregulation cant keep up we bring this in
-medulla oblongata
-1. cardiac center
2. vasomotor center

23

cardiac center
-2 centers within this

1. cardioaccelatory center
2. cardioinhibitory center

24

cardioaccelatory center
-NS
-effect on CO

-sympathetic
-increases

25

cardioinhibitory center
-NS
-effect on CO

-parasympathetic
-decreases

26

vasomotor center
-contains what
-2 components

-contains 2 populations of neurons
-1. vasoconstriction
2. vasoconstriction

27

Vasoconstriction is vasomotor center
-releases what
-type of receptor
-effect on PR

-norepinephrine
-adrenergic
-increases

28

vasodilation is vasomotor center
-releases what
-type of receptor
-effect on PR

-epinephrine
-cholinergic
-decreases

29

Chemical and hormones regulating BP
-definition
-vasoconstrictors (3)
-vasodilators (2)

-enhances short term effects and directs long term changes
-norepinephrine, angiotensin, antidiuretic hormone
-nitric oxide (NO), atrial natriuretic peptide

30

regulation of blood pressure: baroreceptors (response to an increase in BP)
-location
-5 steps

-in the carotid sinus, wall of atrium and ascending aorta
1.homeostasis is disturbed = increase in BP
2. Reflex response: baroreceptors stimulated
3. Vasomotor center inhibited -> vasodilation -> decrease in BP
3. AND cardioinhibitory center stimulated and cardioaccelatory center inhibited
4. decrease CO
5. decrease BP
6. homeostasis restored

31

regulation of BP: baroreceptors (response to decrease in BP)

1. homeostasis is disturbed: decrease in BP
2. reflex response: baroreceptors inhibited
3. vasomotor center stimulated-> vasoconstriction -> increase in BP
3. AND cardioinhibitory center stimulated and cardioaccelatory center inhibited
4. Increase CO
5. decrease BP
6. homeostasis restored`

32

Regulation of BP: chemoreceptors
-location
-5 steps

1. homeostasis disturbed: decrease pH, O2 and increase CO2
2. reflex response: chemoreceptors stimulated
3.respiratory centers -> increase respiration rate ->increase pH and O2 and decrease CO2
3. cardioaccelatory center stimulated and cardio inhibitory center inhibited-> increase CO and BP
3.vasomotor center stimulated -> vasoconstriction -> increase CO and BP
4. increase in pH and O2 and decrease in CO2
5. homeostasis restored: normal ph, O2 and CO2

33

2 major circuits

1, pulmonary circuit
2. systemic circuit

34

pulmonary circuit
-pulmonary arteries
-pulmonary veins

-blood away from heart towards lungs
-blood away from lungs towards heart

35

systematic circuit
-arteries
-veins

-blood away from heart towards body tissues
-blood toward heart from body

36

4 divisions of aorta

1. ascending aorta
2. aortic arch
3. thoracic aorta
4. abdominal aorta

37

ascending aorta
-2 arterial branches
-2 regions supplied

-right and left coronary arteries
-right and left ventricles

38

aortic arch
-5 arterial branches

-1. Brachiocephalic (right common carotid, right subclavian)
2. Left common carotid
3. left subclavian artery

39

regions supplied by:
-right common carotid
-right subclavian
-left common carotid
-left subclavian

-head and neck
-shoulder, arm, chest wall, and back
-head and neck
-shoulder, arm, chest wall and back

40

4 branches of the aortic arch supplying the head and neck

1. common carotid
2. carotid sinus
3. internal carotid
4. external carotid

41

carotid sinus
-location

located at base of internal carotid

42

internal carotid
-location
-supplies what

-inside skull
-brain

43

external carotid
-supplies 3 things

1. face
2. neck
3. throat

44

trace a blood drop from heart to fingers
-7

1. heart
2. aortic arch
3. subclavian artery
4. axillary artery
5.brachail artery
5. ulnar and radial
6. superficial and deep palmar arteries
7. digital arteries

45

thoracic aorta
-many or a little branches
-extends from __ to __
-2 arterial branches

-many
-T5 to T12
-visceral and parietal

46

regions supplied by:
-visceral
-parietal

-organs of chest: pericardium, bronchial tubes, trachea, esophagus
-chest wall: muscles and diaphragm

47

abdominal aorta
-begins where
-4 arterial branches

-immediately inferior to diaphragm
-1. celiac trunk
2. superior mesenteric
3. right and left renals
4. inferior mesenteric

48

celiac trunk
-3 arterial branches
-regions supplied

-1. left gastric artery (stomach)
2. splenic artery (spleen)
3. common hepatic artery (liver)

49

regions supplied by:
-superior mesenteric
-right and left renals
-inferior mesenteric

-pancreas, sm intestine, and parts of large intestine
-kidneys
-large intestine and rectum

50

right internal iliac artery
-supplies 4 organs

1. bladder
2. rectum
3. prostate
4. uterus and vagina

51

2 types of veins

1. deep
2. superficial

52

deep veins
-lies next to ___
-have different or same name

-arteries
-have same name

53

superficial veins
-lies near ___
-have different or same name

-surface
-different

54

all systematic veins empty into ____ through these 3 vessels

-right atrium
1. superior vena cava
2. coronary sinus
3. inferior vena cava

55

superior vena cava drains

upper regions of body

56

coronary sinus drains

myocardium

57

inferior vena cava drains

lower parts of the body

58

2 veins of the head and neck

1. right and left internal jugular
2. right and left external jugular

59

right and left internal jugular
-regions drained

drains the brain through a series of sinuses: largest sinus is the sagittal sinus that runs in falx cerebri

60

right and left external jugular
-regions drained

drains the structures of the face

61

5 deep veins of the arm

1. subclavian
2. axillary
3. brachial
4. radial
5. ulnar

62

regions drained by deep veins:
-subclavian
-axillary
-brachial
-radial
-ulnar

-shoulder
-axillary region (arm pit)
-upper arm
-lower arm
-lower arm

63

how does axillary vein form

basilic joins with brachial to form axillary

64

3 superficial veins of the arm

1. cephalic
2. basilic
3. median cubital

65

regions drained by superficial veins
-cephalic
-basilic
-median cubital

-regions of the superficial arm

66

what vein is used for blood collection

median cubital

67

7 veins of the thorax, abdomen and pelvis

1. azygos system
2. superior vena cava
3. inferior vena cava
4. right and left common iliacs
4. hepatic
5. renal
6. gonadal

68

what are the deep veins of the thorax, abdomen and pelvis

azygos system, superior and inferior vena cava and right and left common iliac

69

regions drained by:
1. azygos system
2. superior vena cava
3. inferior vena cava
4. right and left common iliacs
5. hepatic
6. renal
7. gonadal

1. chief collecting vessels of the thorax
2. head, neck, and upper extremities
3. lower extremity
4. pevis and lower limbs
5.liver
6. kidneys
7. gonads

70

7 deep veins of the leg

1. common iliac
2. internal iliac
3. external iliac
4. femoral
5. popliteal
6. posterior tibial
7. anterior tibial

71

superficial vein of the leg

great saphenous

72

regions drained by:
1. common iliac
2. internal iliac
3. external iliac
4. femoral
5. popliteal
6. posterior tibial
7. anterior tibial

1. right and left join to form inferior vena cava
2. pelvic region
3. thigh
4. thigh
5. posterior knee
6. posterior leg
7. anterior leg

73

regions drained by great saphenous

superficial structures of the leg