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1

overview of the immune response
-

PAGE 94!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

2

T cells
-4 types

1. cytotoxic T cells
2. Helper T cells
3. Memory T cells
4. suppressor T cells

3

cytotoxic T cells
-known as what 3 names
-what do they respond to

-killer T cells, CD8 cells, or Tc
-respond to antigens presented with MHC class I molecules

4

MHC
-stands for
-same or different for each person
-found where

-Major Histocompatibility Complex
-unique for each person
-on every cell in the body

5

Helper T cells
-known as what 2 names
-responds to what
-found only on
-function

-CD4 cells or Th
-responds to antigens presented with MHC class II molecules
-antigen presenting cells and other lymphocytes
-stimulates the response of both T and B cells

6

Memory T cells
-responds to what

responds to antigens they have already encountered

7

suppressor T cells
-known as
-function

-Ts
-inhibit T and B cells and moderate the immune system

8

T cell activation
-2 rules

1. T cells cannot directly interact with antigen
2. T cells must have antigen presented to them on an MHC molecule

9

what do Th cells require

a specialized cell called an antigen presenting cell

10

antigen presenting cell
-definition
-2 ex

-specialized cell that activates Th cell
-macrophages, dendritic cells

11

what occurs with Th cells

co stimulation occurs and T cell becomes activated

12

activated helper T cells secrete cytokines that will do what 4 things

1. stimulate T cell divisions
2. enhances non-specific defenses
3. attracts and stimulates the activity of natural killer cells (NK cells)
4. Promotes activation of B cells

13

what does stimulating the T cell divisions do?
-2 things

-produces memory T cells
-accelerate maturation of cytotoxic T cells

14

what does enhancing non-specific defenses do

attract and stimulate macrophages

15

what does promoting activation of B cells do

division, maturation and antibody production

16

cytotoxic T cells
- 5 steps

1. antigen recognition
2. costimulation activates CD8 T cell
3. Activation and cell division (producing active Tc cells and memory Tc cells
4. destruction of target cells
5. perforin, cytokine, lymphotoxin release

17

perforin release triggers
-cytokine release
-lymphotoxin release

-destruction of plasma membrane
-stimulation of apoptosis
-disruption of cell metabolism

18

B cells are effective against

antigens and pathogens in body fluids; NOT infected cells

19

B cells
-4 steps

1. binding of antigens to B cells
2. sensitization of B cells
3. activation by helper T cells
4. B cell divides and differentiates into 2 cells

20

binding of antigens to B cells cannot what

cannot directly encounter an antigen and does not need an APC

21

sensitization of B cells
-what do B cells display
-what does it wait for

-antigens on MHC class II
-waits for signal from Th cell

22

activation by helper T cells
-2 steps

-Th binds to MHC class II complex on B cell
-Th secretes cytokines

23

cytokines

promotes B cell activation

24

B cell divides and differentiates into 2 cells

1. plasma cell
2. memory cell

25

plasma cell of a B cell
-function
-known as
-added to what
-binds to what

-produces proteins
-antibodies
-added to circulation
-binds to antigens in body fluids

26

memory cell of a B cell
-function
-initiates what

-programmed to recognize an antigen in the future
-initiates a strong and swift response

27

where are antibodies and proteins found?

in the body fluids or bound to the cells

28

constant regions
-what do they form
-determines what

-the base of the antibodies
-determines how antibody is distributed in the body

29

variable regions

confers antibody specificity

30

5 types of antibodies

1. IgG
2. IgE
3. IgD
4. IgM
5. IgA