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Flashcards in chapter 22 part 2 Deck (38):
1

overview of the immune response
-

PAGE 94!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

2

T cells
-4 types

1. cytotoxic T cells
2. Helper T cells
3. Memory T cells
4. suppressor T cells

3

cytotoxic T cells
-known as what 3 names
-what do they respond to

-killer T cells, CD8 cells, or Tc
-respond to antigens presented with MHC class I molecules

4

MHC
-stands for
-same or different for each person
-found where

-Major Histocompatibility Complex
-unique for each person
-on every cell in the body

5

Helper T cells
-known as what 2 names
-responds to what
-found only on
-function

-CD4 cells or Th
-responds to antigens presented with MHC class II molecules
-antigen presenting cells and other lymphocytes
-stimulates the response of both T and B cells

6

Memory T cells
-responds to what

responds to antigens they have already encountered

7

suppressor T cells
-known as
-function

-Ts
-inhibit T and B cells and moderate the immune system

8

T cell activation
-2 rules

1. T cells cannot directly interact with antigen
2. T cells must have antigen presented to them on an MHC molecule

9

what do Th cells require

a specialized cell called an antigen presenting cell

10

antigen presenting cell
-definition
-2 ex

-specialized cell that activates Th cell
-macrophages, dendritic cells

11

what occurs with Th cells

co stimulation occurs and T cell becomes activated

12

activated helper T cells secrete cytokines that will do what 4 things

1. stimulate T cell divisions
2. enhances non-specific defenses
3. attracts and stimulates the activity of natural killer cells (NK cells)
4. Promotes activation of B cells

13

what does stimulating the T cell divisions do?
-2 things

-produces memory T cells
-accelerate maturation of cytotoxic T cells

14

what does enhancing non-specific defenses do

attract and stimulate macrophages

15

what does promoting activation of B cells do

division, maturation and antibody production

16

cytotoxic T cells
- 5 steps

1. antigen recognition
2. costimulation activates CD8 T cell
3. Activation and cell division (producing active Tc cells and memory Tc cells
4. destruction of target cells
5. perforin, cytokine, lymphotoxin release

17

perforin release triggers
-cytokine release
-lymphotoxin release

-destruction of plasma membrane
-stimulation of apoptosis
-disruption of cell metabolism

18

B cells are effective against

antigens and pathogens in body fluids; NOT infected cells

19

B cells
-4 steps

1. binding of antigens to B cells
2. sensitization of B cells
3. activation by helper T cells
4. B cell divides and differentiates into 2 cells

20

binding of antigens to B cells cannot what

cannot directly encounter an antigen and does not need an APC

21

sensitization of B cells
-what do B cells display
-what does it wait for

-antigens on MHC class II
-waits for signal from Th cell

22

activation by helper T cells
-2 steps

-Th binds to MHC class II complex on B cell
-Th secretes cytokines

23

cytokines

promotes B cell activation

24

B cell divides and differentiates into 2 cells

1. plasma cell
2. memory cell

25

plasma cell of a B cell
-function
-known as
-added to what
-binds to what

-produces proteins
-antibodies
-added to circulation
-binds to antigens in body fluids

26

memory cell of a B cell
-function
-initiates what

-programmed to recognize an antigen in the future
-initiates a strong and swift response

27

where are antibodies and proteins found?

in the body fluids or bound to the cells

28

constant regions
-what do they form
-determines what

-the base of the antibodies
-determines how antibody is distributed in the body

29

variable regions

confers antibody specificity

30

5 types of antibodies

1. IgG
2. IgE
3. IgD
4. IgM
5. IgA

31

what does Ig stand for

immunoglobin

32

4 functions of antibodies

1. act to neutralize the antigen by binding to it
2. causes antigen to precipitate or agglutinate
3. coats antigen marking it for phagocytosis
4. increased effectiveness of phagocytosis

33

precipitate

to come out of a solution

34

antibody titer

level of antibody activity

35

primary response
-IgM peak
-IgG peak

-takes more time to develop
-1 1/2 weeks
-~2 weeks after exposure

36

secondary response
-fast or slow response
-what is this due to
-basis for

-much faster and stronger response
-memory cells
-vaccines

37

CD4 T cells
-what are these cells

cells infected with HIV

38

HIV
-what does this virus do
-what is the result

the virus destroys the CD4 T cells
-compromises the immune system (AIDS)