Chapter 4 Section 1 and 2 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 4 Section 1 and 2 Deck (29):
1

rapids along a river, such as those along the Nile in Egypt

cataracts

2

a triangle shaped area of land made from soil deposited by a river

delta

3

legendary Egyptian ruler, he unified the kingdoms of Upper and Lower Egypt and built the new capital city in Memphis. Also founded Egypt's first dynasty

Menes

4

the title used by the rulers of Egypt. Means "great house"

pharaoh

5

a series of rulers from the same family

dynasty

6

the period from about 2700 to 2200 BC in Egyptian history that began shortly after Egypt was unified

Old Kingdom

7

Egyptian pharaoh, he ruled during Egypt's Old Kingdom and is known for the many monuments built to honor him

Khufu

8

rich and powerful people

nobles

9

life after death

afterlife

10

specially treated bodies wrapped in cloth for preservation

mummies

11

people of wealth and power

elite

12

huge triangular tombs built by the Egyptians and other peoples

pyramids

13

the application of scientific knowledge for practical purposes

engineering

14

Why was Egypt called the gift of the Nile?

The Nile River allowed Egypt to thrive. The river was so important to people in this region that a Greek historian named Herodotus called Egypt the gift of the Nile.

15

What attracted early settlers to the Nile Valley?

The early settlers chose the Nile Valley because they found plenty of food there to eat -- plants, wild animals, fish. In time they learned how to farm and settled along the Nile.

16

Where was Lower Egypt located?

north of Upper Egypt

17

Why was the Nile Delta well suited for settlement?

The land was fertile for farming

18

How might the Nile's cataracts have both helped and hurt Egypt?

The cataracts made sailing very difficult, protecting Egypt from invasion but also preventing easy transportation of goods by the Egyptians.

19

What foods did the Egyptians eat?

Egyptians had a varied diet including fish, beef, wild geese and ducks, wheat, barley, fruits and vegetables.

20

What role did the Nile play in supplying Egyptians with the foods they ate?

The Nile supplied the water for the fields through a series of canals built by the Egyptians.

21

How did the desert on both sides of the Nile help Egypt?

The deserts provided protection against invasion.

22

Who was the first pharaoh of Egypt?

Menes

23

Why did the pharaohs of the First Dynasty wear a double crown?

The double crown symbolized their rule over Upper and Lower Egypt

24

How was society structured in the Old Kingdom?

At the top of society was the pharaoh. Just below him were the upper classes including priests and government officials and other nobles. Next was the middle class, including lesser government officials, scribes, and rich craftspeople. Next came the lower class -- more than 80 percent of the population -- which was mostly farmers, servants, and slaves.

25

How did religious beliefs affect Egyptian burial practices?

Most of Egyptian religion focused on the afterlife. When a person died, his ka or life force left the body and became a spirit. The ka remained linked to the body and could not leave the burial site. The ka had all the same needs the person had while living -- eat, sleep, be entertained. Because of this need, tombs were filled with objects for afterlife, including furniture, clothing, tools, and food.

26

Why were pyramids important to the ancient Egyptians?

The size and shape of pyramids were symbolic. The top pointed to the skies, symbolizing the pharaoh's journey to the afterlife. The Egyptians wanted the pyramids to be spectacular because they believed that the pharaoh as their link to the gods controlled everyone's afterlife.

27

To what does the term Old Kingdom refer?

The Third Dynasty which began around 2700 BC

28

Why was the pharaoh's authority never questioned?

Ancient Egyptians believed that the pharaoh came to earth in order to manage Egypt for the rest of the gods.

29

Why was embalming important to Egyptians?

Embalming preserved the body for the afterlife.