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Flashcards in Chapter 5 Deck (37):
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Computational Approach

Determining the computations that a machine would have to preform to solve a perceptual problems.

1

Constructivist Approach

Perceptual systems construct a representation of reality from fragments of sensory information. Perception is strongly influenced by past experiences.

2

Ecological Approach

Perceptual experience is due directly to the wealth of information contained in the stimuli presented by the environment.

3

Psychophysics

Describes the relationship between physical energy in the environment and our psychological experience of that energy.

4

Absolute threshold

Minimum amount of stimuli we can detect. Detected 50% of the time.

5

Subliminal threshold

Stimuli that are too weak/brief to be detected.

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Supraliminal stimuli

Stimuli that are constantly perceived.

7

Sensitivity

Our ability to pick out a particular. Influenced intensity of the signal, capacity of sensory systems, and amount background stimulation.

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Signal-detection Theory

Mathematical model of how our personal sensitivity and response criterion combine to determine decisions about whether or not a near-threshold stimulus has occurred.

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Difference Threshold/ Just-noticeable difference

Smallest difference between stimuli that we can detect.

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Weber's Law

Smallest detectable difference in stimulus energy is a constant fraction of the intensity of the stimulus.

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Weber's Constant

JND=KI
(JND=just-noticeable difference)
(K=Weber's constant for a particular sense)
(I=amount/intensity of the stimulus)

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Proximity

The closer objects or events are to one another the more likely they are to be perceived as belonging together.

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Similarity

Similar events are perceived to be part of a group.

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Continuity

Sensations that appear to create a continuous form are perceived as belonging together.

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Closure

Tending to fill in missing contours to form a complete object.

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Common fate

Sets of objects that moving in the same direction at the same speed perceived together.

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Synchrony

Stimuli that occur together are perceived as belonging together.

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Common region

Elements located in some boundary tend to be grouped together.

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Connectedness

Elements that are connected by other elements tend to be grouped together.

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Auditory scene analysis

Perceptual process of mentally representing and interpreting sounds.

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Interposition

Closer objects block the view of things farther away.

22

Relative size

When two objects are assumed to be about equal in size, the one that casts the larger image on the retina is perceived to be closer.

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Height in visual field

On the ground more distant objects are usually higher in the visual field than those nearby.

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Texture gradient

Texture appears less detailed as distant increases.

25

Linear perspective

Objects that are nearer the point of convergence are seen as father away.

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Motion parallax

Closer/farther objects appear to move faster/slower

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Accommodation

Muscles surrounding the lens either tighter or relax to make the lens more curved/flatter.

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Convergence

Eyes must converge(rotate inward) to project a image on each retina.

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Binocular disparity

Difference between two retinal images.

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Looming

Rapid expansion in the size of an image so that it fills the retina. (getting closer)

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Stroboscopic motion

Occurs because our tendency to interpret continuos motion as a series of still images of still images flashed in rapid succession.

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Perceptual constancy

Perception of objects as constant in properties despite changes in their retinal image.

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Top-down processing

Aspects of recognition that are guided by higher-level cognitive processes, such as expectation.

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Bottom-up processing

Aspects of recognition that depend first on the information about the stimulus that comes from sensory receptors.

35

Schema

Mental representation of what we know and have come to expect of the world.

36

Parallel distributing processing(PDP) models

An approach to understanding object recognition in which various elements of the object are thought to be simultaneously analyzed of widely distributed, but connected, neural units in the brain.