Flashcards in Chapter 5 Deck (37):
Determining the computations that a machine would have to preform to solve a perceptual problems.
Perceptual systems construct a representation of reality from fragments of sensory information. Perception is strongly influenced by past experiences.
Perceptual experience is due directly to the wealth of information contained in the stimuli presented by the environment.
Describes the relationship between physical energy in the environment and our psychological experience of that energy.
Minimum amount of stimuli we can detect. Detected 50% of the time.
Stimuli that are too weak/brief to be detected.
Stimuli that are constantly perceived.
Our ability to pick out a particular. Influenced intensity of the signal, capacity of sensory systems, and amount background stimulation.
Mathematical model of how our personal sensitivity and response criterion combine to determine decisions about whether or not a near-threshold stimulus has occurred.
Difference Threshold/ Just-noticeable difference
Smallest difference between stimuli that we can detect.
Smallest detectable difference in stimulus energy is a constant fraction of the intensity of the stimulus.
(K=Weber's constant for a particular sense)
(I=amount/intensity of the stimulus)
The closer objects or events are to one another the more likely they are to be perceived as belonging together.
Similar events are perceived to be part of a group.
Sensations that appear to create a continuous form are perceived as belonging together.
Tending to fill in missing contours to form a complete object.
Sets of objects that moving in the same direction at the same speed perceived together.
Stimuli that occur together are perceived as belonging together.
Elements located in some boundary tend to be grouped together.
Elements that are connected by other elements tend to be grouped together.
Auditory scene analysis
Perceptual process of mentally representing and interpreting sounds.
Closer objects block the view of things farther away.
When two objects are assumed to be about equal in size, the one that casts the larger image on the retina is perceived to be closer.
Height in visual field
On the ground more distant objects are usually higher in the visual field than those nearby.
Texture appears less detailed as distant increases.
Objects that are nearer the point of convergence are seen as father away.
Closer/farther objects appear to move faster/slower
Muscles surrounding the lens either tighter or relax to make the lens more curved/flatter.
Eyes must converge(rotate inward) to project a image on each retina.
Difference between two retinal images.
Rapid expansion in the size of an image so that it fills the retina. (getting closer)
Occurs because our tendency to interpret continuos motion as a series of still images of still images flashed in rapid succession.
Perception of objects as constant in properties despite changes in their retinal image.
Aspects of recognition that are guided by higher-level cognitive processes, such as expectation.
Aspects of recognition that depend first on the information about the stimulus that comes from sensory receptors.
Mental representation of what we know and have come to expect of the world.