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Flashcards in Chapter 6 Deck (21):


rules of conduct that specify appropriate behavior in a given range of social situations. a norm either prescribes a given type of behavior or forbids it. all human groups follow definite norms which are always backed by sanctions of one kind or another-varying from disapproval to physical punishment



modes of action that do not conform to the norms or values held by most members of a group or society. what is regarded as deviant is as variable as the norms and values that distinguish different cultures and subcultures from one a noter. forms of behavior that are highly esteemed by one group are negatively regarded by others


deviant subculture

a subculture whose members hold values that differ substantially from those of the majority



a mode of reward or punishment that reinforces socially expected forms of behavior



a rule of behavior established by a political authority and backed by state power



any action that contravenes the laws established by a political authority. although we may think of criminals as a distinct subsection of the population, there are few people who have not broken the law in one way or another during their lives. while laws are formulated by state authorities, it is not unknown for those authorities to engage in criminal behavior in certain situations



a specific personality type, such individuals lack the moral sense and concern for others held by most normal people



a concept brought into use by Durkheim, referring to a situation in which social norms lose their hold over individual behavior


differential association

an interpretation of the development of criminal behavior proposed by Edwin Sutherland, according to whom criminal behavior is learned through association with others who regularly engage in crime


control theory

theory that views crime as the outcome of an imbalance between impulses toward criminal activity and controls that deter it. control theorist hold that criminals are rational beings who will act to maximize their own reward unless they are rendered unable to do so through either social or physical controls


New criminology

a branch of criminological thought prominent in great britain in the early 1970s that regarded deviance as deliberately chosen and often political in nature. the new criminologists argued that crime and deviance could only be understood in the context of power and inequality within society


labeling theory

an approach to the study of deviance that suggests that people become deviant because certain labels are attached to their behaviors by political authorities and others


primary deviance

according to Edwin Lemert, the actions that cause others to label one as deviant


secondary deviance

according to Lemert, following the act of primary deviance, secondary deviation occurs when an individual accepts the label of deviant and acts accordingly


Uniform Crime Reports (UCR)

documents that contain official data on crime that is reported to law enforcement agencies who then provide the data to the FBI


white-collar crime

criminal activities carried out by those in white-collar, or professional jobs


corporate crime

offenses committed by large corporations in society. examples include pollution, false advertising and violation of health and safety regulations


organized crime

criminal activities carried out by organizations established as businesses


community policing

a renewed emphasis on crime prevention rather than law enforcement to reintegrate policing within the community


target hardening

practical measures used to limit a criminal's ability to commit a crime, such as community policing or use of house alarms



a way of punishing criminal and deviant behavior based on rituals of public disapproval rather than incarceration. the goal of shaming is to maintain the ties of the offender to the community.