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Flashcards in chapter 9 Deck (18):


the biological and anatomical differences distinguishing females from males



social expectations about behavior regarded as appropriate for the members of each sex. gender refers not only to the physical attributes distinguishing men and women, but to socially formed traits of masculinity and femininity


gender socialization

the learning of gender roles through social factors such as schooling, the media and family


social construction of gender

the learning of gender roles through socialization and interaction with others



the dominance of men over women. all known societies are patriarchal, although there are variations in degree and nature of the power men exercise, as compared with women.


gender inequality

the inequality between men and women in terms of wealth, income and status


gender typing

designation of occupations as male or female. women's occupations=retail position, secretary, positions with lower status and pay
men's occupations=managerial and professional positions, have higher pay and status


comparable wealth

policies that attempt the remedy the gender pay gap by adjusting pay so that those in female-dominated positions are not paid less for equivalent work


glass ceiling

a promotion barrier that prevents a woman's upward mobility within an organization


glass escalator

the process by which men in traditionally female positions benefit from an unfair rapid rise within an organization


sexual harassment

the making of unwanted sexual advances by one individual towards another, in which the first person persists even though it is clear that the other party is resistant



unpaid work carried on in the home, usually by women; domestic chores such as cooking, cleaning and shopping, AKA domestic labor



the forcing on nonconsensual vaginal, oral or anal intercourse


feminist theory

a sociological perspective that emphasizes the centrality of gender in analyzing the social world and particularly the uniqueness of the experience of women. intended to explain the gender inequalities in society and work to overcome them


liberal feminism

form of feminist theory that believes that gender inequality is produced by unequal access to civil rights and certain social resources, such as education and employment, based on sex. tend to seek solutions through changes in legislation that ensure the rights of the individual are protected


radical feminism

form of feminist theory that believes that gender inequality is the result of male domination in all aspects of social and economic life


black feminism

a strand of feminism theory that highlights the multiple disadvantages of gender, class and rape that shape the experiences of non white women. reject the idea of a single unified gender oppression that is experienced evenly by all women and argue that early feminist analysis reflected the specific concerns of white, middle class women



members of early women's movement s who presses for equal voting rights for women and men