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Flashcards in Chapter 7 Deck (32):
1

Social stratification

the existence of structured inequalities between groups in a society, in terms of their access to material or symbolic rewards. only with the development of state-based systems did wide differences in wealth and power arise. e.x. class division

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slavery

a form of social stratification in which some people are owned by others as their property

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caste system

a social system in which one's social status is given for life

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endogamy

the forbidding of marriage or sexual relations outside of one's social group

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class

one of the most frequently used concepts in sociology, there is no clear agreement of how it should be defined. used to refer to socioeconomic variations between groups of individuals that create variation in their material prosperity and power

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life chances

introduced by Max Weber to signify a person's opportunities for achieving economic prosperity

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means of production

the means whereby the production of material goods is carried on in a society, including not just technology but the social relations between producers

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capitalists

people who own companies, land or stocks and use theses to generate economic returns

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surplus value

in Marxism theory, the value of a worker's labor power left over when an employer has repaid the cost of hiring the worker.

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status

the social honor or prestige that a particular group is accorded by other members of a society. Status groups normally display distinct styles of life. status privilege may be positive or negative

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pariah groups

groups who suffer from negative status or discrimination-they are looked down on by most other members of society. e.x. the jews throughout european history

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income

payment, usually derive from wages, salaries, or investments

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wealth

money and material possessions held by an individual or group

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upper class

a social class broadly composed of the more affluent members of society, especially those who have inherited wealth, own businesses or hold large numbers of stocks

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lower class

a social class composed of those who work part time or not at all and whose household income is typically low

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under class

a class of individuals situated at the bottom of the class system, often composed of people from ethnic minority backgrounds

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social mobility

movement or individuals or groups between different social positions

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intra-generational

movement up or down a social stratification hierarchy within the course of a personal career

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intergenerational mobility

movement up or down a social stratification hierarchy from one generation to another

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downward mobility

social mobility in which individual's wealth, income or status is lower than that they or their partner once had

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short range downward mobility

social mobility that occurs when an individual moves from one position in the class structure to another of nearly equal status

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absolute poverty

the minimal requirements necessary to sustain a healthy existence

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relative poverty

poverty defined according to the living standards of the majority in any given society

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poverty line

an official government measure to define those living in poverty in the United States

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working poor

people who work, but whose earnings are not enough to lift them above the poverty line

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feminization of poverty

an increase in the proportion of the poor who are female

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social security

a government program that provides economic assistance to persons faced with unemployment, disability or old age

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medicare

a program under the U.S. social security administration that reimburses hospitals and physicians for medical care provided to qualifying people over 65 years old

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culture of poverty

thesis popularized by Oscar Lewis that poverty is not the result of individual inadequacies but is instead the outcome of a larger social and cultural atmosphere into which successive generations or children are socialized. the culture of poverty refers to the values, beliefs, lifestyles, habits and traditions that are common among people living under conditions of material deprivation

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dependency culture

popularized by Charles Murray to describe individuals who rely on state welfare provision rather than entering the labor market. the dependency culture is seen as the outcome of the "paternalistic" welfare state that undermines individual ambition and people's capacity for self help

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social exclusion

the outcome of multiple deprivations that prevent individuals or groups from participating fully in the economic, social and political life of the society in which they live

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homeless

people who have no place to sleep and either stay in free shelters or sleep in public places not meant for habitation