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Flashcards in chapter 15 Deck (27):
1

conurbation

an agglomeration of towns or cities into an unbroken urban environment

2

megalopolis

the "city of all cities" in ancient Greece, used in modern times to refer to very large conurbations

3

urbanization

the development of towns and cities

4

ecological approach

a perspective on urban analysis emphasizing the natural distribution of city neighborhoods into areas having contrasting characteristics

5

inner city

the areas composing the central neighborhoods of a city, as distinct from the suburbs, in many modern urban settings inner city areas are subject to decay

6

urban ecology

an approach to study the urban life based on an analogy with the adjustment of plants and organisms to the physical environment

7

urbanism

term used by Louis Wirth to denote distinctive characteristics of urban social life, such as impersonal or alienating nature

8

created environment

constructions established by human beings to serve their needs, derived from the use of man made technology. includes roads, railways, factories

9

suburbanization

the development of suburbia, areas of housing outside of the inner city

10

urban renewal

the process of renovating deteriorating neighborhoods by encouraging the renewal of old buildings and construction of new ones

11

gentrification

a process of urban renewal in which older, deteriorated housing is refurbished by affluent people moving into the area

12

global city

a city such as london, New York or Tokyo that has become an organizing center of the new global economy

13

deomgraphy

the study of size, distribution and composition of populations

14

crude birth rate

a statistical measure representing the number of births within a given population per year, normally calculated as the number of births per 1000 members

15

fecundity

a measure of the number of children that it is biologically possible for a woman to produce

16

crude death rate

a statistical measure representing the number of deaths that occur annually in a given population per year

17

mortality

the number of deaths in a population

18

infant mortality rate

the number of infants who die during the first year of life, per 1000

19

life expectancy

the number of years the average person can expect to live

20

life span

the max length of life that is biologically possible for a member of a given species

21

exponential growth

a geometric, rather than linear rate of increase. populations tend to grow exponentially

22

doubling time

the time it takes for a particular level of population to double

23

malthusianism

a doctrine about population dynamics developed by Thomas Malthus according to which population increase comes up against the natural limits, represented by famine and war

24

demographic transition

an interpretation of population change which holds that a stable ratio of births to deaths is achieved once a certain level of economic prosperity has been reached

25

dependency ratio

the ratio of people of dependent ages to people of economically active ages

26

environmental ecology

a concern with preserving the integrity of the physical environment in the face of the impact of modern industry and technology

27

sustainable development

the notion that economic growth should proceed only in so far as natural resources are recycled rather than depleted; biodiversity is maintained and clean air, water and land are protected