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Flashcards in Chapter 2 Deck (28):
1

Naqib

a veil that covers a muslim woman's hair and face

2

culture

the values held by members of a particular group, the languages they speak, the symbols they revere, the norms thy follow and the material goods they create

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values

abstract ideals e.g. monogamy

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norms

widely agreed apron principles or rules people are expected to observe

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material goods

the physical objects that individuals in a society create, in turn influencing how we live

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instinct

a fixed pattern of behavior that has genetic origins and that appears in all normal animals within a given species

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society

a group of people who live in a particular territory, are subject to a common system of political authority and are aware of having a distinct identity from other groups. some are small while others are large

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sociobiology

an approach that attempts to explain the behavior of both animals and he-man beings in terms of biological principles

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subcultures

values and norms are distinct from those of the majority, held by a group within a wider society

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assimilation

the acceptance of a minority group by a majority population in which the new group takes on the values and norms of the dominant culture

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multiculturalism

the viewpoint according to which ethnic groups cane exist separately and share equally in economic and political life

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ethnocentrism

the tendency to look at other cultures through the eye's of ones own culture and thereby misrepresent them

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cultural relativism

the practice of judging a society by its own standards

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cultural universals

values or modes of behavior shared by all human cultures

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language

the primary vehicle of meaning and communication in a society. a system of symbols that represent objects and abstract thoughts

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marriage

a socially approved sexual relationship between 2 individuals. almost always involves 2 people of the opposite sex. forms the basis of family procreation

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linguistic relativity hypothesis

perceptions are relative to language

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signifier

any vehicle of meaning and communication

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semiotics

the study of the ways in which linguistic and nonlinguistic phenomena can generate meaning

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pastoral societies

societies whose subsistence derives from the rearing of domesticated animals

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agrarian societies

means of subsistence are based on agricultural production

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industrialization

the emergence of machine production based on the use of inanimate power resources

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industrialized societies

highly developed nation states in which the majority of population work in factories or offices rather than in agriculture, and most people live in urban areas

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nation state

characteristic of the modern world, govt has sovereign power within a defined territorial area, and the population are citizens who know themselves to be a part of that single nation. closely associated with the rise of nationalism

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colonialism

the process whereby western nations established their rule in parts of the world away from their home territories

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developing world

the less developed societies in which industrial production is either virtually nonexistent or only developed to a limited degree

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newly industrializing economies

developing countries that over the past2-3 decades have begun to develop a strong industrial base e.g. singapore and hong Kong

28

nationalsim

a set of beliefs and symbols expressing identification with a national community