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Flashcards in chapter 13 Deck (48):
1

collective bargaining

the rights of employees and workers to negotiate with their employers for basic rights and benefits

2

government

the enacting of policies and decisions on the part of officials within a political apparatus. while in the past, virtually all governments were headed by monarchs or emperors, in modern societies most are headed by officials who do not inherit their positions of power but are elected or appointed on the basis of qualification

3

politics

the means by which power is employed to influence the nature and content of government activities. the sphere of the political includes the activities of those in govt., but also the actions of others. there are many ways in which people outside the government apparatus seek to influence it

4

economy

the system of production and exchange that provides for the material needs of individuals living in a given society. what goes on in the economy usually influences other areas in social life. Modern economies differ substantially from traditional ones because the majority of the population is no longer engaged in agricultural production

5

power

the ability of an individual or members of a group to achieve aims or further interests they hold. a pervasive element in all human relationships

6

authority

a government's legitimate use of power

7

state

a poltitcal apparatus ruling over a given territorial order whose authority is backed by laws and the ability to use force. the emergence of state marked a distinctive transition in human history because the centralization of power involved in state formation introduced new dynamics into processes of social change

8

nation state

a particular type of state characteristic of the modern world in which government has sovereign power within a defined territorial area, and the population are citizens who know themselves to be a part of an emerging nation state. originated in Europe

9

sovereignty

the undisputed political rule of a state over a given territorial area

10

citizen

a member of a political community having both rights and duties associated with that membership

11

nationalsim

a set of beliefs ands symbols expressing identification with a national community

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local nationalism

the beliefs that communities share a cultural identity should have political autonomy, even within smaller units of a nation state

13

civil rights

legal rights held by all citizens in a given national community

14

political rights

rights of political participation, such as the right to vote in local and national elections, held by citizens of a national community

15

social rights

rights of social and welfare provisions held by all citizens in a national community including the right to claim unemployment, and sickness payments provided by the state

16

welfare state

a political system that provides a wide range of welfare benefits for its citizens

17

democracy

a political system that allows citizens to participate in political decision making or to elect representative government bodies

18

participatory democracy

a system of democracy in which all members of a group or community participate collectively in making major decisions

19

direct democracy

a form of participatory democracy that allows citizens to vote directly on laws and policies

20

constitutional monarchs

kings or queens who are largely figureheads. real power rests in the hands of other political leaders

21

liberal democracies

systems of democracy based on parliamentary institutions, coupled to the free market system in the area of economic production

22

communism

a set of political beliefs associated with marx, as developed by a particularly by Lenin and institutionalized in the soviet union, eastern europe and some 3rd world countries

23

interest group

a group organized to pursue specific interests in the political arena, operating primarily by lobbying the members of legislative bodies

24

democratic elitism

a theory of the limits of democracy which holds that in large scale societies democratic participation is necessarily limited to the regular election of political leaders

25

pluralist theory of modern democracy

theories that emphasize the role of diverse and potentially competing interest groups, none of which dominate the political process

26

power elite

small networks of individuals who hold concentrated power in modern society

27

terrorism

use of attacks on civilians designed to persuade a government to alter its policies, or to damage its standing in the world

28

old-style terrorism

a type of terrorism that is local and linked to particular states and has limited objectives, which means that the violence involved is fairly limited

29

new-style terrorism

a recent form of terrorism characterized by global ambitions, loose global organizational ties and a more ruthless attitude toward the violence the terrorists are willing to use

30

work

the activity by which people produce from the natural world and so insure their survival

31

occupation

any form of paid employment in which an individual regularly works

32

technology

the application of knowledge of the material world to production; the creation of material instruments using human interactions with nature

33

informal economy

economic transactions carried on outside the sphere of orthodox paid employment

34

division of labor

the specialization of work tasks, by means of which different occupations are combined within a production system. all societies have at least some rudimentary division of labor, especially between tasks performed by men and women

35

economic interdependence

the fact that in the division of labor, individuals depend on others to produce many or most of the goods they need to sustain their lives

36

alienation

the sense that our own abilities as human beings are taken over by other entities

37

strike

a temporary stoppage of work by a group of employees in order to express a grievance or enforce a demand

38

capitalism

an economic system based on the private ownership of wealth, which is invested and reinvested to produce a profit

39

entrepreneur

the owner or founder of a business firm

40

monopoly

a situation in which a single firm dominates in a given industry

41

oligopoly

the domination of a small number of firms in a given industry

42

family capitalism

capitalistic enterprises owned and administered by entrepreneurial families

43

managerial capitalism

capitalistic enterprises administered by managerial executives rather than by owners

44

welfare capitalism

practice in which large corporations protect their employees from the vicissitudes of the market

45

institutional capitalism

capitalistic enterprises organized on the basis of institutional shareholding

46

transnational corporations

business corporations located in 2 or more countries

47

automation

production processes monitored and controlled by machines with only minimal supervision from people

48

knowledge economy

a society no longer based primarily on the production of material goods, but based instead on the production of knowledge