Flashcards in Chapter 10 Deck (21):
cultural values and norms that distinguish the members of a given group from others. an ethnic group is one whose members share a distinct awareness of common cultural identity, separating them from other groups. in virtually all societies, ethnic differences are associated with variations in power and material wealth. where ethnic divisions are also racial, such divisions are especially pronounced
differences in human physical characteristics used to categorize large numbers of individuals
the process by which understandings of a race are used to classify individuals or groups of people. racial distinctions are more than ways of describing human differences, they are also important factors in the reproduction of patterns of power and inequality
the attribution of characteristics of superiority or inferiority to a population sharing certain physically inherited characteristics. racism is a form of prejudice focusing on physical variations between people. racist attitudes became entrenched during the period of western colonial expansion, but also rest on mechanisms of prejudice and discrimination found in human societies today.
patterns of discrimination based on ethnicity that have become structured into existing social institutions
the holding of preconceived ideas about an individual or group, ideas that are resistant to change even in the face of new information. prejudice may either be positive or negative.
behavior that denies to the members of a particular group resources or rewards that can be obtained by others.
a fixed and inflexible category
the transferring of ideas or emotions from their true source to another object
an individual or group blamed for wrongs that were not their doing
a group of people who are in a minority in a given society and who, because of their distinct physical or cultural characteristics, find themselves in situations of inequality within that society. also known as an ethnic minority
the opposite of a minority group. the dominant group possesses more wealth, power and prestige in a society
the systematic, planned destruction of a racial, political or cultural group
the practices of keeping racial and ethnic groups physically separate, thereby maintaining the superior position of the dominant group.
the acceptance of a minority group by a majority population, in which the new group takes on the values and norms of the dominant culture
the idea that ethnic differences can be combined to create new patterns of behavior drawing on diverse cultural sources
a model for ethnic relations in which all ethnic groups in a society retain their independent and separate identities, yet share equally in the rights and powers of citizenship
the viewpoint, according to which ethnic groups can exist separately and share equally in economic and political life.
the movement of people into one country from another for the purpose of settlement
the movement of people out of one country in order to settle in another