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Flashcards in Chapter 10 Deck (21):
1

ethnicity

cultural values and norms that distinguish the members of a given group from others. an ethnic group is one whose members share a distinct awareness of common cultural identity, separating them from other groups. in virtually all societies, ethnic differences are associated with variations in power and material wealth. where ethnic divisions are also racial, such divisions are especially pronounced

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race

differences in human physical characteristics used to categorize large numbers of individuals

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racialization

the process by which understandings of a race are used to classify individuals or groups of people. racial distinctions are more than ways of describing human differences, they are also important factors in the reproduction of patterns of power and inequality

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racism

the attribution of characteristics of superiority or inferiority to a population sharing certain physically inherited characteristics. racism is a form of prejudice focusing on physical variations between people. racist attitudes became entrenched during the period of western colonial expansion, but also rest on mechanisms of prejudice and discrimination found in human societies today.

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institutional racism

patterns of discrimination based on ethnicity that have become structured into existing social institutions

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prejudice

the holding of preconceived ideas about an individual or group, ideas that are resistant to change even in the face of new information. prejudice may either be positive or negative.

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discrimination

behavior that denies to the members of a particular group resources or rewards that can be obtained by others.

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stereotype

a fixed and inflexible category

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displacement

the transferring of ideas or emotions from their true source to another object

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scapegoat

an individual or group blamed for wrongs that were not their doing

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minority group

a group of people who are in a minority in a given society and who, because of their distinct physical or cultural characteristics, find themselves in situations of inequality within that society. also known as an ethnic minority

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dominant group

the opposite of a minority group. the dominant group possesses more wealth, power and prestige in a society

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genocide

the systematic, planned destruction of a racial, political or cultural group

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segregation

the practices of keeping racial and ethnic groups physically separate, thereby maintaining the superior position of the dominant group.

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assimilation

the acceptance of a minority group by a majority population, in which the new group takes on the values and norms of the dominant culture

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melting pot

the idea that ethnic differences can be combined to create new patterns of behavior drawing on diverse cultural sources

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pluralism

a model for ethnic relations in which all ethnic groups in a society retain their independent and separate identities, yet share equally in the rights and powers of citizenship

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multiculturalism

the viewpoint, according to which ethnic groups can exist separately and share equally in economic and political life.

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immigration

the movement of people into one country from another for the purpose of settlement

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emigration

the movement of people out of one country in order to settle in another

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Diaspora

the dispersal of an ethnic population from an original homeland into foreign areas, often in a forced manner or under traumatic circumstances.