Flashcards in Chapter 7 Anatomy, Physiology, & Terinology Deck (162)
What is anatomy?
refers to the structure of the body and the relation of its parts to one another.
What is physiology?
refers to the function of the living body and its parts.
What is the anatomical position of the human body?
body standing erect, facing forward, with arms down at the sides and palms facing forward.
If a patient is lying face up on his back?
If a patient is lying face down on his stomach?
if a patient is lying on left or right side?
Lateral recumbent position
If a patient is lying on his back with his upper body elevated at a 45 to 60 degree
if a patient is lying on his back and his upper body is elevated at less than 45 degrees?
If a patient is lying on his back with the legs elevated higher than the head and body on an inclined plane (head down legs up)
Define the Shock position
feet and legs elevated
Are the Tredelenburg & shock position still used to treat patients in shock.
what are anatomical planes?
Divisions of the body
Which plane is a vertical plane that runs lengthwise and divides the body into right and left segments
Sagittal plane (median plane)
Which plane divides the body into front and back halves
Frontal (coronal plane)
this plane is parallel with the ground and divides the body into upper or lower halves
Transverses plane (horizontal plane)
what line is it when you draw a line vertically through the body.
Define the Midaxillary line
vertically from the middle of the armpit down to the ankle
what is the anterior plane
the patient's front
What is the posterior plane
the Patients back
What is the superior plane?
above the waist
What is the inferior plane?
Below the waist
Towards the front is?
Towards the back is
What meaning is toward the head or above the point of reference?
What meaning is toward the feet or below the point of reference.
toward the back bone or spine
towards the front or belly
towards the center of the body
left or right side of the midline
on both sides
near the point of reference
distant or far from the point of interest.
What refers to center of each of the collarbones (clavicle)?
What refers to the center of the arm pit?
What refers to the sole of the foot?
What refers to the palm of the hand?
name the abdominal quadrants
right upper quadrant
right lower quadrant
left upper quadrant
left lower quadrant
the musculoskeletal System consist of what?
a bony framework (skeleton) held together by ligaments that connect bone to bone, and tendons that connect muscles to bones and various other tissues.
what four things do the skeleton serve?
1. Giving the body it shape
2. Protecting the vital internal organs
3, Allowing for movement
4. Storing minerals and producing blood cells
The skeleton has six basic components. What are they
2. spinal column
5. upper extremities
The Skull has two parts. What are they?
1. the cranium; forms the top, back, side of the skull
Name the for lobes of the cranium.
1. occipital lobes
2. two parietal lobes
3.two temporal lobes
The spinal column is composed of how many vertebrae?
The spinal column is divided into five parts. What are they?
The first seven C1-C7 form the _______spine and are most prone to injury.
The 12 ______ vertebrae that are directly inferior to the cervical spine form the upper back.
Thoracic spine T1-T12
What is attached to the spine posteriorly and helps support the vertebrae.
12 pairs of thoracic ribs
What are the 5 vertebrae that form the lower back?
lumbar spine L1-L5
What is the name of the five fused vertebrae that form the posterior side of the pelvis?
Sacral spine S1-S5
The last 4 fused vertebrae is known as
What is the thorax (chest) composed of?
the ribs, Sternum (breastbone), thoracic spine
The first seven ribs are attached to the sternum by_____ and are called_______.
The next three ribs are attached to the ribs above by what?
the front ends of the last two ribs are not connected to the sternum and are called______.
The last five ribs are known as_________.
what is the flat, narrow bone in the middle of the anterior chest.
what is the inferior portion of the sternum called?
What is a doughnut shaped structure that consist of several bones including the sacrum and the coccyx?
What area of the pelvis forms the wings?
The ilac crest
What is the anterior and inferior portion of the pelvis?
What does the pelvis cavity support?
the intestines and houses the bladder rectum and internal reproductive organs.
What are the limbs of the body known as
The upper and lower extremities
the lower extremities are from ________ to_____.
the head of the femur is known as?
the thighbone is known as the?
what bone protects and stabilizes the front of the knee joint?
The two bones of the lower legs are known as
tibia and fibula
The boney protrusion of the ankle is called?
The heal is called the
the group of bones that make up the proximal portion of the foot is known as?
Five______make up the substance of the foot.
14 _________make up the toes.
The arms, shoulder, forearms, wrists and hands are called____________.
The shoulder girdle is composed of ______ and_____.
Scapula (shoulder blade)
the tip of the shoulder girdle is?
The largest bone of the upper extremities is known as?
What is the lateral bone of the forearm?
What is the medial bone of the forearm?
The bony prominence of the elbow is known as?
The writs consist of how many bones____ and are called_____.
Where does the structural strength of the hand come from?
What is the name of the bone that makes up the fingers and the thumb?
the place were bones connect to another is called_____.
Movable joints allow changes in ____and______
position and motion
Bending towards the body or decreasing angle
Bending away from the body and increasing angle
Movement away from the midline
Movement toward the body
the combination of flexion, Extension, abduction, & adduction i.e. the shoulder joint.
Turning the forearm so the palm of the hand is facing forward
Name 6 types of joints
1. ball and socket joints (hip and shoulder)
2. Hinged joints (elbows, knee, & fingers)
3. Pivot joint ( between head/neck and the wrist
4. Gliding joints (connect the small bones in the hands and feet_
5. Saddle joints (ankle)
6. Condyloid joint (modified ball joint which allows the hand to move up and down)
How much blood can a patient lose from a fractured femur?
What is responsible for movement in the body.
What are the cells of muscles called
Name the 3 kinds of muscle in the body:
what controls the skeletal muscles?
The brain and nervous system
what is meant by voluntary muscle.
it can be contracted and relaxed by the will of the individual.
Smooth muscle (involuntary) is made up of what
large fibers that carry out the automatic muscular functions of the body through rhythmic wavelike movement.
example: bile from gallbladder, food though digestive tract
decreasing the diameter of a vessel
increasing the diameter of a vessel
Vasoconstriction and vasodilation are controlled by what muscle?
what muscle is only found in the wall of the heart?
The basic function of the respiratory system are?
Serving as a buffer to maintain normal acid-base balance
the process to of moving oxygen and carbon dioxide across membranes, aveoli, capillaries, and cells is called?
is the form of respiration in which oxygen molecules move across a membrane from an area of high oxygen concentration to an area of low concentration.
The mechanical process by which air is moved in and out of the lungs is called
What system takes oxygen from the air and transports it to the blood?
Name the structures of the upper.
nose and mouth
the upper airway ends were?
the cricoid cartilage
Name the structures of the lower airway.
Air enters the body through______ and _______.
nose and mouth
What is the structure that food and air pass through
Air from the nose enters the nasal portion of the pharynx known as________?
Air from the mouth enters through the oral portion of the pharynx known as_______?
The lower end of the pharynx has to structures called _______and ________.
The trachea is anterior to ______?
The Trachea carries air to ________?
directly superior to the trachea is the voice box also known as _______?
The Larynx houses the________.
the anterior cartilage that cover the larynx iz called _____?
the thyroid cartilage (adams apple)
The trachea is protected by a small leaf shape flap called the _______?
The distal portion of the trachea branches into two main tubes called _______?
Each bronchus divides and subdivides in to smaller ________>
what occurs during bronchoconstriction?
the smooth muscle constrict decreasing the diameter of the bronchiole and thereby make it hard for air to pass.
what occurs during bronchodialation
the smooth muscle relaxes, increasing the diameter thereby making it easer for air to pass through the bronchioles
what is the tiny air sac at the end of the bronchioles?
what is the Alveoli enclosed in?
capillaries (tiny blood vessels)
what is the Alveoli purpose
Gas exchange in the lungs
what are the principle organs of respiration?
what is the visceral plura?
covers the outer surface of the lung
what is the parietal plura?
a thicker more elastic tissue that covers the internal chest wall.
what is the pleural cavity
the layer between the visceral & parietal layers
what is the powerful dome shaped muscle that is essential to breathing?
during inhalation the diaphragm and the________ contract increasing the size of the thoracic cavity.
what organ contribute to 60-70 percent of the effort of breathing?
what organ contribute to 30 to 40 percent of the effort of breathing?
What stimulates the diaphragm to contract?
phrenic nerve in the cervical spine between C3-C5
respiratory rate is___________________.
the number of breathes a patient takes in one minute.
respiratory rate per min of an adult is_______ and in elderely is _________.
what are signs of inadequate breathing?
Rates to high or low for what normal for a patient
irregular breathing patterns
diminished or absent breath sounds
unequal chest expansion
inadequate chest expansion
Pale or blue mucus membranes or skin
use of accessory muscle
nasal flaring especially in children
Agonal breathing (occasional gasping breath)
the circulatory system consist of_______________.
heart, blood vessels and blood.
what is the function of the circulatory system?
1. Providing a medium for perfusion of cells with oxygen and other nutrients and the removal of waste.
2.transporting blood to cells and the alveoli for gas exchange.
3. housing blood.
4. buffing the body's acid-base balance
5. delivering immune cells and other substances to fight infections.
6. containing substance that promote clotting
which organ is chambered muscular organ and lies within the chest cavity.
what is the pericardium?
its a double walled sac that encloses the heart, gives support, prevents friction as the heart moves in the sac.
how many chambers does the heart have?
the upper chamber that receives blood from the veins is ____?
The lower chambers of the heart are called _____?
What prevents the backflow of blood and keeps blood flowing in one direction in the heart?
what are the names of the four values of the heart?
1.Tricuspid value: between the right atrium and the right ventricle.
2. Pulmonary valve: at the base of the pulmonary artery in the right ventricle.
3. Mitral valve: between the left atrium and the left ventricle
4. Aortic valve: at the base of the aortic artery in the left ventricle.
what is the myocardium ?
middle layer of muscle in the heart
electrical impulse of the heart that causes the myocardium to contract originates at
sinoatrial (SA) node > atrioventricular (AV) node >bundle of HIS > Purkinje fibers > ventricals
what carries blood away from the heart
all arteries carry oxygenated blood except?
which artery lies in front of the spine and passes through the thoracic and abdominal cavities?
which artery supply the heart with blood?
which artery supplies the brain and head with blood.?
which artery supplies the legs and groin with blood?
which artery supplies the foot?
Which artery travels from the calf to the foot?
Posterior tibial arteries
Which artery is the major artery of the upper arm
which artery is most often used to take a patients pulse
Radial artery on the wrist