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The Persians and the Medes were two nomad groups that settled in Southwest Asia. Who led the Persians to conquer the Medes?

Cyrus II

1

Who founded the Persian Empire?

Cyrus II (Cyrus the Great). He was a tolerant ruler. He let his conquered lands keep their own language and was peaceful

2

Many believe that Cyrus Ii's empire was strengthened because of this tolerance. How did God use Cyrus II to help the Israelites?

He freed them from Babylon
Restored them to the land of Israel
Let them rebuild their temple

3

God used _______, a Jewish exile, to warn Belshazzar, the last Chaldean ruler, that his kingdom would soon fall to the Medo-Persian army

Daniel

4

This artifact (found by Hormuzd Rasam) does not mention Israel by name, but the Bible book of Ezra said that Cyrus allowed the Israelites to return to Judah and rebuild God’s house in Jerusalem.

Cyrus Cylinder

5

Under which king did the Persian Empire reach its greatest size and power?

Darius I

6

How did Darius keep the empire organized and protected?

Centralized Government with governors
Large road system
Great messenger relay system
large army (10,000 Immortals)
Calvary

7

The dynasty that Cyrus began is known _________ period of Persia.

Achaemenid period of Persia

8

Cyrus II was buried in a grand royal tomb in the capital city _______

Pasargadae. (Passed away -pasargadae)

9

Another great ruler of the Persian Empire was Darius... His nickname was _____ the ______ because of his long and successful reign.

Darius the Great

10

Darius divided his empire into twenty provinces and each had its own governor. Each province was known as a _______. Each governor was known as a ________.

Satrapy

Satrap

11

A governmental system with local governments that are subject to a higher authority is called a __________ ________.

Centralized government (federal and states)

12

Darius moved the capital from Pasargadae to two different cities....

Susa and then

Persepolis

13

How did Darius keep his empire connected and spread information?

Built 8,000 miles of roads. Used messengers along this road to carry messages in "relay style"

14

What was the longest road (1,600 miles) in the Persian Empire called?

the Royal Road

15

What two cities were connected by the Royal Road

Susa to Sardis

16

What famous Greek historian described the Royal Road messenger relay system?

Herodotus

(Same description for US Post Office.... Neither rain, sleet, snow etc)

17

He was the third ruler of the Persian Empire. He rose to power after the death of Cambyses, Cyrus’s son. During his reign, the Persian Empire reached the height of its size and power.

Darius I

18

Darius had a common currency in his empire.

gold coin stamped with his image = ?

silver coin = ?

Daric

Shekel

19

Darius needed a strong army to protect his empire. Ten thousand of these soldiers were the king’s own special force, called the ________. When one died, he was immediately replaced.

Immortals

Darius himself had been one of the Immortals during the reign of Cambyses.

20

True or False: Persia also had the help of a calvary (horses) to control the large empire?

True

21

This Greek scholar became known as the Father of History

Herodotus

22

Herodotus recorded all the major events of his time in a lengthy work called:

The Histories.

23

Much of what we know about ancient Persia came from this Greek Historian?

Herodotus

24

What does the art of Darius’s time tell about the Persians?

The Persians had great wealth and they loved beautiful things.

25

What made the Persian religion different from most of the others in the ancient world?

Monotheism

26

This language became the common tongue of the Persian empire.

Aramiac

27

Jars, jugs, utensils, and drinking vessels called _______ often have animal shaped handles.

Rhytons

28

Why was the Darius rock carving in Behistun important?

Behistun carving was one of the sources used to decipher the Persian and other cuneiform languages

29

This man lived during the sixth century BC and founded a religion that studied Good vs Evil?

Bonus: what was this religion called?

Zoroaster

Zoroastrianism

30

In Zoroastrianism, God's name was ______, and the Devil's name was ________?

Ahura Mazda. (See car photo)

Ahriman. (Sounds like Areymon from Pride)

31

Differences between Zoroastrianism and Christian?

Zoroastrianism: person must CHOOSE between good and evil. (Christian says were born with sin already and must be saved)

Zoroastrianism: person has eternal happiness if they did more good than evil in life (Christian says everyone who believes in christ gets eternal happiness)

Zoroastrianism: god and devil are equals. (christian says God rules over all. satan cant do anything unless God allows it)

32

The holy writings of Zoroastrianism is made up of myths, rules and hymns is called the ________?

Avesta

33

True or False: The Zoroastrians believed that Ahura Mazda (Good God) was represented by fire.

True

34

The priests in the Persian Empire were called _____? (not all of them were Zoroastrian)

Magi. (We get the word magic from them)

35

Some people in modern Iran and India still follow Zoroastrianism. They call themselves _____, which is another word for Persians.

Parsis

36

_______ was the official religion of Persian Empire?

Bonus, it was the only religion accepted by Darius?

Zoroastrianism. False

37

What events led to the wars between Persia and Greece?

Greek City-States rebelled against the Persians

38

Greeks vs Persians. Which side won each of the three major battles?

Battle of Marathon?
Battle of Thermopylae?
Battle of Salamis?

Greeks

Persians (a Greek traitor helped capture mountain)

Greeks (faster Navy, caught them in straight)


39

These three battles were part of what war?

Battle of Marathon
Battle of Thermopylae
Battle of Salamis

Persian War

40

In the Battle of Thermopylae, Xerxes (Darius son) built wooden planks across this narrow straight to make a bridge to attack Greece. Bridge collapsed:

Hellespont. (See photo)

41

In this battle, General Themistocles realized the Greeks had faster, smaller ships than Persians. Persian navy was stuck in this straight...

Straight of Salamis (see photo)

42

The Persian king Xerxes is called Ahasuerus in the book of _______. This woman married Xerxes and challenged him to protect Gods People (Israelites).

Esther

43

How did Artaxerxes I (Xerxes son) help the Israelites?

Helped Ezra and Nehemiah return to Jerusalem.

Ezra taught Israelites after temple rebuilt. Artaxerxes paid Ezra’s expenses for the journey.

Nehemiah lead the Israelites to rebuild the wall around Jerusalem. Artaxerxes supplied the wood. He also guaranteed Nehemiah’s safety in his travels

44

What are some of the reasons for the decline of the Persian Empire?

Too many wars with Greek and Romans.

Despite losses, Persian royalty continued their luxurious lifestyle.

They placed heavier taxes on the people.

45

____________ was the last of the strong Achaemenid kings in Persia.

Artaxerxes I

46

This person finally conquered the Persian Empire? he was in his early 20s and conquered them in only four years?

Alexander the Great

47

_________ is a term used to describe Greek culture as it made its way into other lands after Alexander’s conquests.

Hellenistic. (hell because they partied so much)

48

After Alexander the Great died, these Persians took over the Persian Empire again. They controlled and taxed the silk road through their territory

Parthians

49

These people wanted to get Greek culture out of Persia, and go back to Zoroastrianism. Persia achieved its greatest wealth during this period.

Sassanids