Chapter9 Flashcards Preview

medical terminology1 > Chapter9 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter9 Deck (114)
1

Acquired immunodeficiency Sydrome

AIDS- destroys the bodys immune system

2

Adenoids

mass of lymphatic tissue (pharyngeal tonsils)

3

Agglutination

Clumping of cells as a result of interaction of specific antibodies

4

Albumins

Normal blood volume and pressure

5

Allergy

Reaction to normally harmless antigens

6

Anaphylactic Shock or anaphylaxis

exaggerated, life-threatening hypersensitivity

7

Anaphylaxis

Life- threatening reaction to an antigen

8

Anemia

a decrease in quantity of hemoglobin in the blood causes oxygen deficiency

9

Anemia, Aplastic

lack of formation of blood elements 'bone marrow depression anemia'

10

Anemia, Iron deficiency

deficiency of hemoglobin due to lack of iron in the body

11

Anemia, Sickle Cell

Chronic hereditary form, RBCs become crescent-shaped in presence of low oxygen concentration

12

Antibodies

Substance, a protien that causes the formation of an antibody

13

Antibody

protein that is anti foriegn substances in response to bacteria

14

Antigen

Generates the formation of antibodies

15

Ascites

Abnormal accumulation of fluid containing large amounts of protien and electrolytes within the peritoneal cavity

16

Basophil

White blood cells characterized by cytoplasmic granules

17

Bilriubin

Orange-Yellow pigment of bile caused by the breakdown of hemoglobin in read blood cells at end of normal life span

18

Bleeding time

Mesurement of time required for bleeding to stop

19

Bone Marrow Biopsy

Microscopic exam of bone marrow tissue

20

Coagulation

Process of transformin a liquid into a solid

21

Complete Blood Cell Count

CBC- tests performed to screen for problems in the body

22

Corpuscle

Any cell of the body

23

CT (CAT) Scan

x-ray images taken from various angles following injection of a contrast medium

24

Cytomegalvirus

herpes type virus causes serious illness in persons with AIDS

25

Differentiation

Where unspecialized cells or tissues are modified and altered for specific functions or properties

26

Direct antiglobulin test

blood test on pregnant RH negative women and RH positive fetus

27

Donor

Person gives blood

28

Dyscrasia

Abnormal condition of blood or bone marrow

29

Edema

Abnormal accumulation of fluid in interstital spaces of tissues

30

Electrophoresis

Movement of charged particals through a liquid medium by changes in electric field

31

Enzyme

Organic substance initiates and accelerates a chemical reaction

32

Enzyme-linked immunosorbent Assay

ELISA- blood test used for screening for antibody to the AIDS virus

33

Eosinophil

A granulocytic, bilobed leukocyte charaterized by large number of coarse, refractile, cytoplasmic granules

34

Erythremia

Abnormal increase in the number of red blood cells

35

Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate

ESR- measures the rate of red blood cells settle out in a tube of unclotted blood "sed rate"

36

Erythropoiesis

Process of red blood cell production

37

Erythropoietin

Hormone released into bloodstream in response to anoxia (lack of oxygen) made by kidneys

38

Fibrinogen

Plasma protein converted to fibrin in the presence of calcium ions

39

Formed Elements

45% bone marrow suspended

40

Globin

Protein molecules bound by iron to form hemoglobin

41

Globulins

Transport lipids, vitamins in blood, function in immunity

42

Granulocytes

Leukocyte characterized by the presence of cytoplasmic granules

43

Granulocytosis

Abnormally elevated number of granulocytes in the circulating blood

44

Hematocrit

assessment of RBC percentage in total blood volume

45

Hematologist

Medical specialist in the field of hematology

46

Heme

Binds with and carries oxygen in the red blood cells

47

Hemochromatosis

Rare iron metablism disease, leaves iron deposits throughout the body

48

Hemoglobin

Complex protien-iron compound that carries oxygen to lungs and carbon away from lungs

49

Hemoglobin test

measurement of hemoglobin

50

Hemolysis

Breakdown of red blood cells

51

Hemophilia

inadequacies of coagulation, prolonged bleeding times

52

Hemorrhage

Loss of a large amount of blood in a short period of time

53

Heparin

Anticlotting factor present in the body

54

HIV

have virus but no symptoms

55

Hyperalbuminemia

Increased level of albumin in the blood

56

Hyperbilirubinema

Greater than normal amounts of the bile pigment in the blood

57

Hyperlipemia

Excessive level of blood fats

58

Hyperlipidemia

Excessive flow of blood fats

59

Hypersensitivity

excessive reaction to a particular stimulus, allergic reaction triggered by an allergen

60

Hypersplenism

syndrome involving deficiency of one or more types of blood

61

Immune reaction

response to invader

62

Immunization

process of creating immunity to a specific disease

63

Immunologist

health specialist whose training and experience is concentrated in immunology

64

Immunotherapy

administers increasingly large doses of the offending allergens to develop immunity

65

Ion

Electrically charged particle

66

Leukemia

Excessive uncontrolled increase of immature WBCs in the blood

67

Leukocyte

White Blood Cell (WBC) body's main defense against pthogens

68

Leukopenia

Abnormal decrease in number of white blood cells

69

Lymph fluid

stems from the blood and tissue fluid rich in wbcs

70

Lymph nodes (lymph glands)

located at various intervals for filtering

71

Lymph vessels

return tissue fluid to blood

72

Lymphatic organs

thymus, spleen, tonsils

73

Lymphocyte

small, leukocytes originating from fetal stem cells and bone marrow

74

Macrophage

defense against infection and in disposal of products of breakdown of cells

75

Megakaryocyte

Extremely large bone marrow cell

76

Monocyte

Large mononuclear leukocyte

77

Multiple Myeloma

A malignant plasm cell neoplasm

78

Myasthenia gravis

autoimmune disease

79

Myeloid

Pertaining to bone marrow to spinal cord

80

Neutrophil

Polymorphonuetear granular leukocyte

81

Partial thromboplastin time

PTT- used to monitor heparin therapy

82

Phagocytosis

process of a cell engulfing and destroying bacteria

83

Pica

Craving to eat unusual substances

84

Plasma

55% Fluid portion of blood, erythrocytes, leukocytes, thrombocytes

85

Polycythemia

abnormal increase in the number of RBCs, granulocytes, and thrombocytes

86

Prothrombin

A plasma protein comes before thrombin , its made in the liver

87

Prothrombin time

PT- used to monitor coumadin therapy

88

Recipient

person that recives blood

89

Red blood cell morphology

Examination of the RBC on a stained blood smear

90

Reticlocyte count

measurement of number of circulating reticulocytes

91

Reticulocyte

Immature erythrocyte

92

Rouleaux

aggregation of RBC

93

Sarcoidosis

inflammatory disease resulting in the formation of multiple, small, round, leasions

94

Septicemia

Systemic infection in which pathogens are present in circulating bloodstream

95

Seroconversion

Change in the serologic tests from negative to positive

96

Serology

Branch of laboratory medicine studies blood serum

97

Serum

Clear, thin, sticky fluid portion of the blood

98

Stem cell

A formative cell

99

Thalassemia

Hereditary form of hemolytic anemia

100

Thrombin

An enzyme formed in plasma during clotting process

101

Thrombocytopenia

Reduction in platelets

102

Thromboplastin

Substance that initiates the clotting process

103

Thrombus

A clot

104

Type AB

Universal recipient, has no antibodies to cause clumping

105

Type O

Universal donor, blood has no antigens on RBC

106

White blood cell differential

percentage of each specific type of circulating WBCs present in blood

107

HCT

Hematocrit

108

PT

Prothrombin time

109

PTT

Partial thromboplasin time

110

RBC

Red blood cell (erythrocyte)

111

WBC

white blood cell (Leukocyte)

112

AIDS

Aquired immunodeficiency syndrome

113

ELISA

enzyme- linked immunosorbent assay

114

HIV

Human immunodeficiency virus