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Flashcards in Chemistry Deck (90):
0

What is a pro-enzyme and what's the other name for it?

aka a Zymogen is an inactive enzyme precursor which requires a biochemical change for it to become active

1

What is an enzyme which oxidizes a compound by removing hydrogen?

Dehydrogenase

2

What is an enzyme which adds hydrogen to a compound?

Reductase

3

What is an enzyme that causes oxygen in a compound to be changed to water?

Oxidase

4

What is the enzyme which catalyzes the release of a carboxyl group (as CO2) from compounds?

decarboxylase

5

What is the enzyme which adds inorganic phosphate to a substrate without using ATP?

phosphorylase

6

What is the enzyme that removes a phosphate group from its substrate?

Phosphatase

7

What is the enzyme that catalyzes the joining of 2 molecules?

Ligase

8

In an enzyme, a site other than the active site is called what?

Allosteric site

9

This is a degradative process which breaks down large molecules into smaller units, releasing useful energy.

Catabolism

10

This is a biosynthetic process which constructs large molecules from smaller units, these reactions require energy.

Anabolism

11

_______ is a chemical covalent bond between glycerol and fatty acids?

Ester bond

12

_______ is the chemical bond between 2 nucleotides?

Phosphodiester

13

What metabolic pathways occur in the mitochondria?

Fatty acid oxidation, TCA cycle, and oxidative phosphorylation

14

What metabolic pathways occur in the cytoplasm?

Glycolysis, fatty acid synthesis, Pentose Phosphate pathway (HM shunt), and protein synthesis

15

What metabolic pathways occur in both mitochondria and cytoplasm?

Heme synthesis, urea cycle, and gluconeogenesis (HUGs)

16

What is the primary structural component of the primary cell wall of green plants?

Cellulose

17

What breaks down starch into maltose and is present in the mouth?

Salivary amylase

18

What enzyme is involved in the rate limiting step of glycolysis?

Phosphofructokinase

19

Too much glucose-6-phosphate accumulating in a cell will cause the cell to ______?

Swell

20

Glucokinase is only found in what organ?

Liver

21

The vast majority of gluconeogenesis takes place in what part of cells in what organ?

Cytosol of liver cells

22

What is the purpose of the cori cycle and what is its net gain/or loss of ATP?

To prevent lactic acid from building up in skeletal muscle
Net LOSS of 4 ATP

23

The process of gluconeogenesis is essentially the reversal of what metabolic pathway?

Glycolysis

24

What is the essential co-enzyme to turn pyruvate into oxaloacetate in the 1st step of gluconeogenesis?

Biotin (Vit. B7)

25

Gluconeogenesis only occurs in these 3 organs.

Liver (mainly)
Kidney
Intestinal epithelium

26

What is the main fuel used to drive the Krebs cycle?

Acetyl CoA

27

What is the enzyme that turns pyruvate from glycolysis into acetyl CoA?

Pyruvate dehydrogenase

28

What are the end products of the Krebs cycle?

3 NADH
1 FADH2
1 GTP

29

What is the rate limiting enzyme in the Krebs cycle?

Isocitrate dehydrogenase (3rd step)

30

What is the only enzyme in the Krebs cycle that is bound to the mitochondrial membrane instead of being soluble in the mitochondrial matrix?

Succinate dehydrogenase

31

Each pyruvate molecule sent into the Krebs cycle eventually yields how many ATP from the electron transport chain (ETC)?

12 ATP

32

What's the total # of ATP's produced through glycolysis, krebs and ETC?

38 ATPs

33

How does NADH and FADH2 cross the mitochondrial membrane to get into the ETC?

Malate-aspartate shuttle OR
Glycerol-3-phosphate shuttle

34

What are proteins that contain iron called?

Cytochromes

35

How does the Electron Transport Chain work?

Who the fuck knows......

36

What is the other name for the cori cycle?

Lactic acid cycle

37

Which pathways purpose is to produce NADPH, and Ribose for DNA & RNA synthesis?

Pentose Phosphate pathway

38

Rate limiting enzyme in the Pentose Phosphate pathway?

Glucose 6-Phosphate dehydrogenase (1st step)

39

What is the main enzyme in Glycogenesis?

Glycogen synthase (allows glucose chains to be added to glycogen for more storage)

40

What inhibits Glycogenesis?

Epinephrine and Glucagon

41

What is the major degradation enzyme in Glycogenolysis?

Glycogen phosphorylase (Rate limiting enzyme)

42

What is the important hormone in the regulation of Glycogenolysis?

Cyclic AMP (cAMP)- Allows this to happen instead of Glycogenesis

43

Which lipoprotein transports triglycerides from liver to tissues?

VLDL

44

Which lipoproteins are in the cis form?

HDL

45

Which lipoproteins are in the trans form?

LDL, IDL

46

Which lipoprotein transports dietary lipids from the intestine to other parts of the body?

Chylomicrons

47

Which type of fatty acid has no double bonds?

Saturated fatty acids

48

What are some examples of essential fatty acids?

Linoleic acid (omega-6)
Linolenic acid (omega-3)

49

Breakdown of fatty acids occurs where?

mitochondria of adipocytes

50

What is the purpose of Lipolysis (FA breakdown)?

Produce Acetyl CoA which can enter the Krebs cycle

51

What are the ketone body byproducts made by lipolysis?

Actone, acetoacetate & beta-hydroxybutyrate (latter 2 converted to Acetyl CoA)

52

Where are ketone bodies synthesized?

Mitochondria of hepatocytes (liver)

53

What is the molecule that causes fruity breath in diabetic ketacidosis?

Acetone

54

What converts acetyl CoA to malonyl CoA in Lipogensis?

Acetyl CoA carboxylase (Rate limiting enzyme)

55

Cholesterol is made mainly from what?

Acetyl CoA

56

What are the 4 steps in the process of Lipogensis?

Condensation
Reduction
Dehydration
Reduction

57

Every amino acid has what 2 things in it's structure?

Amine (NH2)
Carboxyl Group (COOH) on the first (alpha) carbon atom

58

What are the 10 essential amino acids?

Phenylalanine, Valine, Threonine, Tryptophan, Isoleucine, Methionine, Histidine, Arginine, Leucine, Lysine

PVT TIM HALL

59

What are the 10 non-essential amino acids?

Proline, Tyrosine, Glycine, Alanine, Glutamine, Asparagine, Glutamate, Aspartate, Serine, Cysteine

PT GAGA GAS C

60

Proteins are made in what part of cells?

Ribosomes

61

What amino acids are glucogenic?

Histidine, Methionine, Threonine, and Valine (Essential)
As well as ALL non-essential except Tyrosine

62

What amino acids are ketogenic?

Luecine, Lysine (essential) & Tyrosine (non-essential)

63

What amino acids are both glucogenic and ketogenic?

Phenylalanine, Isoleucine, and Tryptophan (PIT)

64

What Three things make up a nucleoTide?

Pentose sugar (ribose, deoxyrib.)
Nitrogen base (Pyrine, pyrimidine)
Phosphate group

65

What two things make up a nucleoside?

Pentose sugar
Nitrogen base (Purine or pyrimidine)

66

What are the pyrimidine bases?

Cytosine
Thymine
Uracil

67

What are the purine bases?

Adenine
Guanine

68

Messenger RNA (mRNA) is synthesized from a DNA template through a process called ______?

Transcription

69

Release of DNA and RNA from cell death is broken down into?

Xanthine (which is converted to uric acid & can cause gout)

70

What are the antioxidant vitamins and minerals?

A, C, E, and selenium (ACEs)

71

What is the active form of Vit. A?

Retinoic acid

72

What is rachitic rosary (Vit. D deficiency)?

Swollen costochondral joints in the chest

73

What is the role of Vit. E?

An antioxidant which protects erythrocytes and membranes from free radical damage

74

Vit. E deficiency will cause?

Hemolytic anemia

75

Vit. B1 (thiamine) is a cofactor for which enzymes?

Pyruvate dehydrogenase and alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase

76

Magenta tongue is a deficiency of what Vitamin?

Vit. B2- Riboflavin

77

Vit. B3 (Niacin) can be made in the body from what amino acid?

Tryptophan

78

Niacin deficiency may present with?

Pellagra

79

Vit. B5 deficiency can lead to what condition?

Burning feet syndrome

80

Vit. B7 (Biotin) is used in what type of reactions?

Carboxylation reactions

81

This Vitamin is used in the transfer of 1-carbon units in DNA and RNA synthesis, to make methionine and purines necessary for DNA synthesis and for the transfer of methyl groups.

Vit. B9 (Folic Acid)

82

Deficiency of this vitamin will cause megaloblastic anemia and a beef red tongue.

Vit. B12 (Cobalamin)

83

If def. of vitamin B12 is due to lack of intrinsic factor it is called?

Pernicious anemia

84

Vit. C enhances the absorption of what mineral?

Iron [Fe]

85

What is the greatest source of iron in the diet?

Red meat (Most absorbable)

86

Greatest dietary source of copper?

Prunes

87

Selenium deficiency causes what disease?

Kenshan's disease

88

What mineral helps insulin to bind to cells which helps glucose transport into cells?

Chromium

89

Greatest source of chromium?

Oysters