Flashcards in Chemistry Deck (90):
What is a pro-enzyme and what's the other name for it?
aka a Zymogen is an inactive enzyme precursor which requires a biochemical change for it to become active
What is an enzyme which oxidizes a compound by removing hydrogen?
What is an enzyme which adds hydrogen to a compound?
What is an enzyme that causes oxygen in a compound to be changed to water?
What is the enzyme which catalyzes the release of a carboxyl group (as CO2) from compounds?
What is the enzyme which adds inorganic phosphate to a substrate without using ATP?
What is the enzyme that removes a phosphate group from its substrate?
What is the enzyme that catalyzes the joining of 2 molecules?
In an enzyme, a site other than the active site is called what?
This is a degradative process which breaks down large molecules into smaller units, releasing useful energy.
This is a biosynthetic process which constructs large molecules from smaller units, these reactions require energy.
_______ is a chemical covalent bond between glycerol and fatty acids?
_______ is the chemical bond between 2 nucleotides?
What metabolic pathways occur in the mitochondria?
Fatty acid oxidation, TCA cycle, and oxidative phosphorylation
What metabolic pathways occur in the cytoplasm?
Glycolysis, fatty acid synthesis, Pentose Phosphate pathway (HM shunt), and protein synthesis
What metabolic pathways occur in both mitochondria and cytoplasm?
Heme synthesis, urea cycle, and gluconeogenesis (HUGs)
What is the primary structural component of the primary cell wall of green plants?
What breaks down starch into maltose and is present in the mouth?
What enzyme is involved in the rate limiting step of glycolysis?
Too much glucose-6-phosphate accumulating in a cell will cause the cell to ______?
Glucokinase is only found in what organ?
The vast majority of gluconeogenesis takes place in what part of cells in what organ?
Cytosol of liver cells
What is the purpose of the cori cycle and what is its net gain/or loss of ATP?
To prevent lactic acid from building up in skeletal muscle
Net LOSS of 4 ATP
The process of gluconeogenesis is essentially the reversal of what metabolic pathway?
What is the essential co-enzyme to turn pyruvate into oxaloacetate in the 1st step of gluconeogenesis?
Biotin (Vit. B7)
Gluconeogenesis only occurs in these 3 organs.
What is the main fuel used to drive the Krebs cycle?
What is the enzyme that turns pyruvate from glycolysis into acetyl CoA?
What are the end products of the Krebs cycle?
What is the rate limiting enzyme in the Krebs cycle?
Isocitrate dehydrogenase (3rd step)
What is the only enzyme in the Krebs cycle that is bound to the mitochondrial membrane instead of being soluble in the mitochondrial matrix?
Each pyruvate molecule sent into the Krebs cycle eventually yields how many ATP from the electron transport chain (ETC)?
What's the total # of ATP's produced through glycolysis, krebs and ETC?
How does NADH and FADH2 cross the mitochondrial membrane to get into the ETC?
Malate-aspartate shuttle OR
What are proteins that contain iron called?
How does the Electron Transport Chain work?
Who the fuck knows......
What is the other name for the cori cycle?
Lactic acid cycle
Which pathways purpose is to produce NADPH, and Ribose for DNA & RNA synthesis?
Pentose Phosphate pathway
Rate limiting enzyme in the Pentose Phosphate pathway?
Glucose 6-Phosphate dehydrogenase (1st step)
What is the main enzyme in Glycogenesis?
Glycogen synthase (allows glucose chains to be added to glycogen for more storage)
What inhibits Glycogenesis?
Epinephrine and Glucagon
What is the major degradation enzyme in Glycogenolysis?
Glycogen phosphorylase (Rate limiting enzyme)
What is the important hormone in the regulation of Glycogenolysis?
Cyclic AMP (cAMP)- Allows this to happen instead of Glycogenesis
Which lipoprotein transports triglycerides from liver to tissues?
Which lipoproteins are in the cis form?
Which lipoproteins are in the trans form?
Which lipoprotein transports dietary lipids from the intestine to other parts of the body?
Which type of fatty acid has no double bonds?
Saturated fatty acids
What are some examples of essential fatty acids?
Linoleic acid (omega-6)
Linolenic acid (omega-3)
Breakdown of fatty acids occurs where?
mitochondria of adipocytes
What is the purpose of Lipolysis (FA breakdown)?
Produce Acetyl CoA which can enter the Krebs cycle
What are the ketone body byproducts made by lipolysis?
Actone, acetoacetate & beta-hydroxybutyrate (latter 2 converted to Acetyl CoA)
Where are ketone bodies synthesized?
Mitochondria of hepatocytes (liver)
What is the molecule that causes fruity breath in diabetic ketacidosis?
What converts acetyl CoA to malonyl CoA in Lipogensis?
Acetyl CoA carboxylase (Rate limiting enzyme)
Cholesterol is made mainly from what?
What are the 4 steps in the process of Lipogensis?
Every amino acid has what 2 things in it's structure?
Carboxyl Group (COOH) on the first (alpha) carbon atom
What are the 10 essential amino acids?
Phenylalanine, Valine, Threonine, Tryptophan, Isoleucine, Methionine, Histidine, Arginine, Leucine, Lysine
PVT TIM HALL
What are the 10 non-essential amino acids?
Proline, Tyrosine, Glycine, Alanine, Glutamine, Asparagine, Glutamate, Aspartate, Serine, Cysteine
PT GAGA GAS C
Proteins are made in what part of cells?
What amino acids are glucogenic?
Histidine, Methionine, Threonine, and Valine (Essential)
As well as ALL non-essential except Tyrosine
What amino acids are ketogenic?
Luecine, Lysine (essential) & Tyrosine (non-essential)
What amino acids are both glucogenic and ketogenic?
Phenylalanine, Isoleucine, and Tryptophan (PIT)
What Three things make up a nucleoTide?
Pentose sugar (ribose, deoxyrib.)
Nitrogen base (Pyrine, pyrimidine)
What two things make up a nucleoside?
Nitrogen base (Purine or pyrimidine)
What are the pyrimidine bases?
What are the purine bases?
Messenger RNA (mRNA) is synthesized from a DNA template through a process called ______?
Release of DNA and RNA from cell death is broken down into?
Xanthine (which is converted to uric acid & can cause gout)
What are the antioxidant vitamins and minerals?
A, C, E, and selenium (ACEs)
What is the active form of Vit. A?
What is rachitic rosary (Vit. D deficiency)?
Swollen costochondral joints in the chest
What is the role of Vit. E?
An antioxidant which protects erythrocytes and membranes from free radical damage
Vit. E deficiency will cause?
Vit. B1 (thiamine) is a cofactor for which enzymes?
Pyruvate dehydrogenase and alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase
Magenta tongue is a deficiency of what Vitamin?
Vit. B2- Riboflavin
Vit. B3 (Niacin) can be made in the body from what amino acid?
Niacin deficiency may present with?
Vit. B5 deficiency can lead to what condition?
Burning feet syndrome
Vit. B7 (Biotin) is used in what type of reactions?
This Vitamin is used in the transfer of 1-carbon units in DNA and RNA synthesis, to make methionine and purines necessary for DNA synthesis and for the transfer of methyl groups.
Vit. B9 (Folic Acid)
Deficiency of this vitamin will cause megaloblastic anemia and a beef red tongue.
Vit. B12 (Cobalamin)
If def. of vitamin B12 is due to lack of intrinsic factor it is called?
Vit. C enhances the absorption of what mineral?
What is the greatest source of iron in the diet?
Red meat (Most absorbable)
Greatest dietary source of copper?
Selenium deficiency causes what disease?
What mineral helps insulin to bind to cells which helps glucose transport into cells?