Flashcards in Microbiology Deck (52):
In an acid-fast stain, the mycobacterium will turn ____ and the other tissues turn _____?
In an endospore stain, the endospores turn _____ and the other cells turn _____?
Most Gram+ bacteria will end in what?
What are some exceptions to the Gram+ rule?
Listeria, Nocardia, Actinomyces, Streptomyces
Gram- bacteria will end in what?
What are some exceptions to the Gram- rule?
Pseudomonas, Proteus, Vibrio, Haemophilus, Bacteroides
Bacteria with NO cell wall form what distinctive appearance?
What organisms require an acid-fast stain?
Mycobacterium (waxy Mycolic-acid in cell wall)
What are the 2 prokaryotes that have a palisade arrangement?
Corynebacterium diphtheria and clostridium tetani
What is found more often in Gram- bacteria and allows them to be more resistant?
Plasmids (F-plasmids, R-plasmids, etc.)
Endospores are only formed in these 2 bacterial organisms.
What is the most common form of bacterial reproduction?
Binary Fission (1 parent= 2 daughter cells)
Eukaryotic cells have ___ ribosomes, except mitochondria and chloroplasts which have ___?
80S, 70S respectively
What is a Virion?
DNA or RNA enclosed in a capsid (enveloped or nonenveloped)
Viroids infect ____ and viroidlike agents infect _____?
Plants, fungi respectively.
What are the only ways to kill prions? (proteinaceous agents)
What is the most common viral shape?
Polyhedral (and of that MC is Icosahedron-20 sides)
Most pathogens prefer what growth classification?
Mesophilic (moderate temps.)
Autotrophs get their nutrient source from what?
What type of viral replication results in bacteria becoming pathogenic?
An environment or procedure that is free of contamination by pathogens.
What is the term for freeze drying/dry ice?
Removal of ill people who have a disease is called?
Removal of well persons who may have been exposed to a disease is called?
Number of new cases of a disease in an area during a given period of time.
Number of total cases of a disease in an area during a given period of time.
Administration of antigens so that patient actively mounts a protective immune response.
Active immunization (slow action, long lasting)
Individual acquires immunity through the transfer of antibodies formed by immune individual or animal.
Passive immunotherapy (immediate protection, short term)
What is it called when the effectiveness of a vaccine is checked by measuring the amount of antibody in the blood?
What is used to inactivate vaccines?
What can you get from custard filled pastry, eggs, tuna fish salad within 2-4 hours?
What can you get from improperly canned veggies, and smoked fish within 18-26 hours?
What can you get from unpasteurized milk products, hot dogs, lunch meats, and can take up to two weeks?
What can you get from undercooked meat, veggies, fruit exposed to fecal material that can take up to 2 days?
E. Coli (-)
What can you get from poultry, meats and eggs within 12-48 hours?
What can you get from foods and water within 1-2 days?
What can you get from seafood and water within 1-5 days?
What can you get from undercooked meat a few hours to 3 weeks later?
Francisella tularensis (-)
what can you get from raw milk, can get TB in months to years?
What is a virus spread by arthropods (insects)?
S/S: sudden fever, severe headache, seizures, coma, 50% die
Eastern Equine Encephalitis (mosquitoes)
S/S: fever, headache, stiff neck, vomiting, 3% die, mostly affects elderly and infants?
Western Equine Encephalitis (mosquitoes)
S/S: Fever, headache, can cause encephalitis
West Nile (mosquito)
S/S: fever, headache, encephalitis, mostly elderly affected
St. Louis Encephalitis (mosquito)
S/S: fever, headache, abdominal pain, encephalitis
California Encephalitis (mosquito)
S/S: causes bleeding and encephalitis
Rift Valley Fever (mosquito)
S/S: fever, rash, headache known as "dengue triangle"
Dengue Fever (mosquito)
S/S: fever headache, nose bleeds
Yellow fever (mosquito)
S/S: fever, headache, chills, eye pain
Colorado tick fever (tick)
S/S: bulls eye rash, migrating joint pain
Lyme disease (tick)
S/S: rash on hands and feet
Rocky mountain spotted fever (tick)