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Flashcards in Microbiology Deck (52):
0

In an acid-fast stain, the mycobacterium will turn ____ and the other tissues turn _____?

Red
Blue

1

In an endospore stain, the endospores turn _____ and the other cells turn _____?

Green
Red

2

Most Gram+ bacteria will end in what?

us, um

3

What are some exceptions to the Gram+ rule?

Listeria, Nocardia, Actinomyces, Streptomyces

4

Gram- bacteria will end in what?

a, er

5

What are some exceptions to the Gram- rule?

Pseudomonas, Proteus, Vibrio, Haemophilus, Bacteroides

6

Bacteria with NO cell wall form what distinctive appearance?

"fried egg"

7

What organisms require an acid-fast stain?

Mycobacterium (waxy Mycolic-acid in cell wall)

8

What are the 2 prokaryotes that have a palisade arrangement?

Corynebacterium diphtheria and clostridium tetani

9

What is found more often in Gram- bacteria and allows them to be more resistant?

Plasmids (F-plasmids, R-plasmids, etc.)

10

Endospores are only formed in these 2 bacterial organisms.

Clostridium, bacillus

11

What is the most common form of bacterial reproduction?

Binary Fission (1 parent= 2 daughter cells)

12

Eukaryotic cells have ___ ribosomes, except mitochondria and chloroplasts which have ___?

80S, 70S respectively

13

What is a Virion?

DNA or RNA enclosed in a capsid (enveloped or nonenveloped)

14

Viroids infect ____ and viroidlike agents infect _____?

Plants, fungi respectively.

15

What are the only ways to kill prions? (proteinaceous agents)

Incineration, autoclave

16

What is the most common viral shape?

Polyhedral (and of that MC is Icosahedron-20 sides)

17

Most pathogens prefer what growth classification?

Mesophilic (moderate temps.)

18

Autotrophs get their nutrient source from what?

Carbon dioxide

19

What type of viral replication results in bacteria becoming pathogenic?

Lysogenic conversion

20

An environment or procedure that is free of contamination by pathogens.

Aseptic

21

What is the term for freeze drying/dry ice?

Lyophilization

22

Removal of ill people who have a disease is called?

Isolation

23

Removal of well persons who may have been exposed to a disease is called?

Quarantine

24

Number of new cases of a disease in an area during a given period of time.

Incidence

25

Number of total cases of a disease in an area during a given period of time.

Prevalence

26

Administration of antigens so that patient actively mounts a protective immune response.

Active immunization (slow action, long lasting)

27

Individual acquires immunity through the transfer of antibodies formed by immune individual or animal.

Passive immunotherapy (immediate protection, short term)

28

What is it called when the effectiveness of a vaccine is checked by measuring the amount of antibody in the blood?

Titer

30

What is used to inactivate vaccines?

Formaldehyde

31

What can you get from custard filled pastry, eggs, tuna fish salad within 2-4 hours?

Staph (+)

32

What can you get from improperly canned veggies, and smoked fish within 18-26 hours?

Botulism (+)

33

What can you get from unpasteurized milk products, hot dogs, lunch meats, and can take up to two weeks?

Listeria (+)

34

What can you get from undercooked meat, veggies, fruit exposed to fecal material that can take up to 2 days?

E. Coli (-)

35

What can you get from poultry, meats and eggs within 12-48 hours?

Salmonella (-)

36

What can you get from foods and water within 1-2 days?

Shigella (-)

37

What can you get from seafood and water within 1-5 days?

Cholera (-)

38

What can you get from undercooked meat a few hours to 3 weeks later?

Francisella tularensis (-)

39

what can you get from raw milk, can get TB in months to years?

Mycobacterium bovis

40

What is a virus spread by arthropods (insects)?

arboviruses

41

S/S: sudden fever, severe headache, seizures, coma, 50% die

Eastern Equine Encephalitis (mosquitoes)

42

S/S: fever, headache, stiff neck, vomiting, 3% die, mostly affects elderly and infants?

Western Equine Encephalitis (mosquitoes)

43

S/S: Fever, headache, can cause encephalitis

West Nile (mosquito)

44

S/S: fever, headache, encephalitis, mostly elderly affected

St. Louis Encephalitis (mosquito)

45

S/S: fever, headache, abdominal pain, encephalitis

California Encephalitis (mosquito)

46

S/S: causes bleeding and encephalitis

Rift Valley Fever (mosquito)

47

S/S: fever, rash, headache known as "dengue triangle"

Dengue Fever (mosquito)

48

S/S: fever headache, nose bleeds

Yellow fever (mosquito)

49

S/S: fever, headache, chills, eye pain

Colorado tick fever (tick)

50

S/S: bulls eye rash, migrating joint pain

Lyme disease (tick)

51

S/S: rash on hands and feet

Rocky mountain spotted fever (tick)

52

TB, small pox, malaria and mumps are all considered what type of diseases?

Re-emerging