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Flashcards in Spinal Anatomy Deck (152):
0

The vertebral column develops from what embryologically?

Mesoderm

1

The notochord remains as what in the body?

Nucleus pulposus

2

3 primary ossification centers of the vertebrae?

Centrum (for the body)
Right and left halves of the neural arch

3

What are the 5 secondary ossification centers of vertebrae?

Spinous process
Rt and Lt transverse processes
Upper and lower vertebral endplates

4

Shapes of the vertebral bodies for each section?

Cervical- Rectangular
Thoracic- Heart shaped
Lumbar- Kidney shaped

5

Orientation of the superior articular facets for each vertebral section?

Cervical- BUM
Thoracic- BUL
Lumbar- BM (Just backwards and medially)

6

The posterior longitudinal ligament continues as the ________ from C2 and above?

Tectorial membrane

7

The supraspinous ligament continues as the ________ from C7 and above?

Nuchal ligament

8

What is the job of the alar ligament?

Prevent axial rotation

9

The anulus fibrosus fibers are angled at ____ degrees to the vertical?

65 degrees

10

The anulus fibrosus is thickest in the ______ region and thinnest in the ______?

Lumbar
Thoracic, Respectively.

11

What part of the anulus fibrosus is innervated?

Outer 1/3

12

The intervertebral disc is nourished by ______ from the vertebral endplates?

diffusion (not well vascularized)

13

What does the intervertebral foramen all contain?

Spinal nerve, spinal nerve roots, dorsal root ganglion, spinal artery, veins, 2 to 4 sinuvertebral nerves, fat and transforaminal ligaments

14

The spinal canal is largest in what region?

Cervical

15

Why is the cervical region the most common site for cord compression?

The spinal cord is widest in this region (specifically C6)

16

The atlanto-occipital joint is classified as what?

Condylar (synovial)

17

The median atlanto-axial joint is classified as?

Pivot (synovial)

18

The lateral atlanto-axial joint is classified as?

Planar (synovial)

19

Zygapophyseal (facet) joints are classified as?

Planar (synovial)

20

50% of flexion and extension in the cervical spine occur at which joint?

Occiput-C1

21

50% of the rotation in the cervical spine occurs at which joint?

C1-C2 (Atlanto-axial)

22

What is the range of motion of the SI joint? And what axis does this occur about?

Nutation/counternutation
-Around an axis passing through S2

23

Innervation of the SI joint?

Superior gluteal nerve and branches from S1 S2

24

The costochondral joints are classified as what?

Synchondrosis (primary cartilaginous)

25

The manubriosternal joint is classified as what?

Symphysis (Secondary cartilaginous)

26

The superficial layer of back muscles is made up of what?

Trapezius and latissimus dorsi

27

The intermediate layer of back muscles is made up of what?

Levator scapulae, Rhomboid major and minor, Serratus posterior superior and inferior

28

The deep layer of back muscles is made up of what?

Splenius capitis, splenius cervicis, erector spinae, semispinalis capitis and cervicis, rotatores, interspinales, intertransversales, multifidus

29

The Multifidus muscles range from what vertebral levels?

Upper part of sacrum all the way to C2

30

What is the most medial of the lumbar back muscles?

Multifidus

31

The medial intertransverarii muscles are supplied by ________ and the lateral are supplied by _________?

Dorsal rami, ventral rami, respectively.

32

What is the main function of the small back muscles such as rotatores, interspinales and intertransversales?

mechanoreceptors (packed w/ muscle spindles?

33

What level of the spine does the cord end at?

L1/L2

34

What layer that covers the spinal cord has the dentate ligaments?

Pia mater

35

The posterior/dorsal columns carry what sensations?

Vibration, fine touch (2 point discrimination), and joint position sense (proprioception). These are known as the Gracilis and Cuneatus tracts

36

The lateral spinothalamic tract carries what sensations?

Pain and temperature

37

The ventral spinothalamic tract carries what sensations?

Crude touch and pressure

38

What is the only descending tract that isn't motor in function?

Raphespinal (modulates nociception)

39

What is the job of the raphespinal tract?

Inhibits nociception by releasing serotonin and acts on the C fibers

40

Rexed lamina II in the grey matter is also called?

Substantia Gelatinosa (Involved w/ pain sensibility)

41

Substance P is found in high concentration in these laminae?

I & II

42

Lamina III & IV are often combined and called?

Nucleus proprius

43

Lamina VII contains the dorsal nucleus (Clarke's column) and axons from here ascend the spinal cord and carry what?

Unconscious proprioception

44

The single anterior spinal artery supplies approximately how much of the spinal cord? (w/ all its branches)

Anterior 2/3

45

The 2 posterior spinal arteries supply how much of the cord?

Posterior 1/3

46

The Great Radicular artery (of Adamkiewicz) supplies which part of the spinal cord?

Lower 1/2 or 2/3 of the spinal cord

47

What type of neuroglia cells make CSF?

Ependymal cells

48

The blood supply for anterior circulation of the brain is supplied by?

Internal carotid arteries

49

The blood supply for posterior circulation of the brain is supplied by?

Vertebrobasilar system

50

The connections between the blood supply in the brain is called?

Circle of Willis

51

The basilar artery supplies which part of the brain?

Pons which contains nuclei for CN V, VI, VII, & VIII

52

What artery supplies the medulla which has nuclei for CN IX, X, XI, and XII?

Vertebral artery

53

Where is the primary olfactory cortex located? (Where CN I fibers end)

In the temporal lobe

54

The only sensory CN that is not linked directly with the thalamus?

Olfactory nerve (CN I)

55

CN III also carries parasympathetic fibers to what?

Circular iris muscle and ciliary body

56

What is the only CN that exits the brainstem dorsally?

Trochlear (CN IV)

57

Parasympathetic fibers do what to the pupil?

Constrict

58

The ophthalmic division of CN V gives off what branches?

NFL:
Nasociliary
Frontal
Lacrimal

59

The maxillary division of CN V gives off what branches?

PINZ
Pharyngeal
Infraorbital
Nasopalatine
Zygomatic

60

CN VII innervates what muscle in the middle ear?

Stapedius (nerve to the stapedius)

61

CN VII conveys taste via what nerve? To what nucleus?

Chorda tympani
Solitary tract nucleus

62

The primary auditory cortex is located where?

Middle portion of the superior temporal gyrus (Brodmann's area 22)

63

CN IX (glossopharyngeal) contains motor fibers from the nucleus ______ to 1 muscle, which is?

Nucleus ambiguus
-Stylopharyngeus muscle

64

CN IX carries taste from the posterior 1/3 of the tongue to the nucleus ______?

Solitarius

65

What are the 3 CN's that pass through the jugular foramen?

CN's IX, X, and XI

66

CN X can go as far down as the?

Transverse colon in the abdomen

67

Which triangle of the neck does CN XI pass through?

Posterior cervical triangle

68

All of the intrinsic and extrinsic muscles of the tongue are supplied by CN XII except??

Palatoglossus (pharyngeal plexus of the vagus nerve)

69

Special Somatic Afferent (SSA) fibers are for which special senses?

Vision, hearing and balance

70

Special Visceral Afferents (SVA) fibers are for which special senses?

Taste
Smell

71

The caudate nucleus, putamen, and globus pallidus are collectively called the?

basal ganglia

72

The internal capsule is divided into what 3 parts?

Anterior limb
Genu
Posterior limb

73

The caudate nucleus and putamen can be collectively called?

Corpus striatum (they are separated by the anterior limb of the internal capsule though)

74

The left and right cerebellar hemispheres are joined centrally by the?

Vermis

75

What part of the vertebral artery is most prone to dissection?

3rd part (between C1 transverse foramen and foramen magnum)

76

The 2 vertebral arteries come together near the pons to form the?

Basilar artery

77

What produces CSF and where?

Choroid plexus in the lateral ventricles at a rate of 500 ml/day

78

Sometimes the superior sagittal and straight sinuses join to form the?

Confluence of sinuses

79

The sigmoid sinus passes through the jugular foramen and becomes?

Internal jugular vein

80

The anterior fontanelle should be closed by?

The first 18 months of life

81

The posterior fontanelle should be closed by?

The first 2-3 months of life

82

What is the highest point on the skull in the sagittal plane called?

Vertex

83

What are the 5 layers of the scalp?

Skin, Closed connective tissue, Aponeurosis, Loose connective tissue, and Pericranium (SCALP)

84

The periosteum is attached to the underlying bone by?

Sharpey's fibers

85

What is the blood supply to the scalp?

External Carotid Artery

86

The muscles of facial expression are innervated by what branches from CN VII?

Temporal, Zygomatic, Buccal, Marginal mandibular, Cervical (Ten Zebras Broke My Car)

87

All of the muscles of the larynx are supplied by the recurrent laryngeal nerve of the vagus except?

Cricothyroid (superior laryngeal branch of CN X)

88

The cervical plexus is derived from the ventral rami of which nerves?

C1-C4

89

The ansa cervicalis is made up of which cervical nerves?

C1, C2, C3

90

What nerve supplies the diaphragm and from what levels?

Phrenic nerve
"C3, C4, C5 keep the diaphragm alive"

91

The axillary nerve (C5-6) supplies which muscles?

Deltoid and teres MINOR

92

Damage to what branch of the brachial plexus will result in "Winged scapula?"

Long thoracic nerve (C5-7)

93

Damage to C5 & C6 roots will result in?

Erb-Duchenne palsy

94

Damage to C8 and T1 roots will result in?

Klumpke's palsy (Claw hand)

95

The Sciatic nerve (L4, L5, S1-3) supplies all of the skin below the knee except?

A thin strip along the medial aspect of the leg and foot which is supplied by the saphenous branch of the femoral nerve

96

Where does the sympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system originate?

Posterior nuclei in the hypothalamus

97

The main end organ neurotransmitter in the sympathetic system is what?

Norepinephrine (except the sweat glands- acetylcholine)

98

Cardiac plexuses are from what thoracic sympathetic level ganglia?

T1-T4

99

The greater splanchnic nerves are derived from what levels and go to what ganglion?

T5-T9 ganglia (to celiac ganglion)

100

The lesser splanchnic nerves are from what levels and go to what ganglion?

T10 & T11 (to superior mesenteric ganglion)

101

The least splanchnic nerves are from what level and go to what ganglion?

T12 (to aortico-renal ganglion)

102

The inferior hypogastric nerve is from what sympathetic levels?

L1 & L2

103

The parasympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system originates from where?

Anterior nuclei in the hypothalamus

104

Parasympathetic fibers are carried in what nerves?

CN III, VII, IX, X and S2-4

105

The main neurotransmitter for the parasympathetic system is what?

Acetylcholine

106

What are the tissues that have ONLY parasympathetic innervation?

Bronchial glands

107

What are the tissues that have ONLY sympathetic innervation?

Blood vessels, Arrector pili muscle, Adrenal Medulla, Sweat glands

BAAS

108

What does the Myenteric plexus of Auerbach do?

Regulates Motility of the muscularis externa in the intestine wall (M with M)

109

What does the Submucosal plexus of Meissner do?

Regulates the Secretion of intestinal glands (S with S)

111

What are the 3 types of autonomic mediated reflexes?

1. Viscerovisceral
2. Viscerosomatic
3. Somatovisceral

112

What roots make up the Lesser Occipital nerve?

C2, C3

113

This nerve is sensory to the posterolateral neck

lesser occipital

114

what roots make up the greater auricular nerve

C2, C3

115

what roots make up the transverse cervical nerve?

C2, C3

116

What roots make up the supraclavicular nerve?

C3, C4

117

what roots make up the nasa cervicalis (superior and inferior roots)?

C1-C4

118

What roods make up the segmental branches of the cervical plexus?

C1-C5

119

What roots make up the phrenic nerve?

C3, C4, C5
"keep the diaphragm alive"

120

What is sensory to the ear and parotid gland?

greater auricular

121

what is sensory to the anterior and lateral neck?

transverse cervical

122

what is sensory to the shoulder and anterior chest?

supraclavicular

123

what is motor to the geniohyoid and infra hyoid muscles of the neck?

ansa cervicalis

124

what is motor to the neck and scalenes, levator, trapezius, and SCM?

segmental branches

125

what is motor to the diaphragm?

phrenic

126

what roots make up the femoral nerve?

L2-L4

127

what roots make up the obturator nerve?

L2-L4

128

what roots make up the lateral femoral cutaneous nerve?

L2, L3

129

what roots make up the iliohypogastric?

L1

130

what roots make up the ilioinguinal?

L1

131

What roots make up the genitofemoral?

L1, L2

132

what nerve is sensory to the thigh, leg, foot, hip and knee joints and motor to the anterior thigh, psoas, pectinous, and iliacus?

Femoral

133

what nerve is sensory to the medial thigh and hip joint and motor to the adductors, gracilis, and obturator externus?

obturator

134

what nerve is sensory to the lateral thigh, and branches to the peritoneum?

Lateral Femoral Cutaneous

135

what nerve is sensory to the lower abdomen, lower back and hip, anterolateral abdominal wall and pubic region?

iliohypogastric

136

what nerve is sensory to eh scrotum, labia ,thigh and cremasterics?

genitofemoral

137

what nerve roots make up the sciatic nerve?

L4-S3

138

what nerve roots make up the tibial?

L4-S3

139

what nerve roots make up the common peroneal?

L4-S2

140

what nerve roots make up the superficial peroneal?

L4-S2

141

What nerve roots make up the Deep Peroneal?

L4-S2

142

What nerve roots make up the superior gluteal

L4-S1

143

What nerve roots make up the inferior Gluteal

L5-S2

144

What nerve roots make up the pudendal?

S2-S4 "S2-S4 help keep it off the floor"

145

what is motor to the tibial and common peroneal?

sciatic nerve

146

what is sensory to the posterior leg and foot and motor to all muscles back of thigh, leg and foot?

tibial

147

what is sensory to the anterior leg and dorm of foot and motor to the peroneals, tibias anterior and extension of toe?

Common peroneal

148

what is motor to the lateral compartment of the leg

superficial peroneal

149

what is motor to the anterior compartment of the leg?

deep peroneal

150

what is motor to the gluteus medium, minimum and TFL?

Superior gluteal

151

what is motor to the gluteus maximus?

inferior gluteal

152

what is sensory to the muscles of the perineum, and motor to the external anal sphincter?

pudendal