Renal/Respiratory Physiology Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Renal/Respiratory Physiology Deck (24):
0

What is the functional unit in the kidney?

Nephron

1

What are the 2 types of nephrons?

Cortical (80%)
Juxta-medullary (20%)

2

What hormones are secreted from the kidneys?

Erythropoietin and renin

3

What is the main function of the proximal convoluted tubule?

Reabsorption

4

What is reabsorbed by the proximal convoluted tubule?

Most of bicarbonate and phosphate
60-70% of Na, K, and Ca
50% of H2O and urea
100% of filtered amino acids and glucose

5

The thin descending part of loop of henle is responsible for?

Concentrating urine (Trapping Na and Cl)

6

The thick ascending part of loop of henle is responsible for?

Diluting urine

7

What hormone acts mainly on the distal convoluted tubule to facilitate Na resorption and K secretion?

Aldosterone

8

Vitamin D acts on the distal convoluted tubule to facilitate Ca resorption and PO4 secretion in what form?

1, 25 dihydroxycholecalciferol (active form of Vit. D)

9

The Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system is primarily involved with what?

Blood pressure regulation

10

The macula densa (sensitive to salt concentration) is located where?

In the distal convoluted tubule near afferent and efferent arterioles of the glomerulus

11

This is a peptide hormone produced by stretched atrial myocardial fibers and causes decreased Na reabsorption in the kidneys.

Atrial Natriuretic Peptide (ANP)

12

What is the major acid-base buffer in the blood?

Bicarbonate (HCO3)

13

Excess hydrogen ions are excreted as ______?

Ammonium (NH4+)

14

What are the 2 main organs that take care of acid-base balance?

Kidneys and lungs

15

In lungs, the capillary endothelium, basement membrane, and Type I pneumocytes make up the "_______?"

air-blood barrier

16

What type of cells produce surfactant in the lungs?

Type II pneumocytes

17

Does blood have the capacity to carry more CO2 or O2?

CO2 (20x more)- but usually blood carries more O2

18

What has the HIGHEST affinity for binding with hemoglobin? (O2, CO2, or CO)

CO (Carbon monoxide)

19

What is the major determinant of breathing rate?

amount of CO2 in the blood

20

This type of breathing is characterized by deep rapid regular breathing and is seen in diabetic ketoacidosis.

Kussmaul breathing

21

This reflex limits over-inflation of the lungs.

Hering-Breuer reflex

22

The volume of a normal breath is called?

Tidal Volume

23

The Total Lung Capacity of a lung is how many mL?

5800 mL