Flashcards in Endocrine Physiology Deck (24):
What is the master control gland of the endocrine system?
Pituitary gland (which is actually controlled by the hypothalamus)
What does ACTH (Adrenocorticotropic Hormone) do?
Governs synthesis of cortisol and pregnenolone in the adrenal cortex
Elevated levels of ACTh are seen in what disease?
What does FSH (Follicle Stimulating Hormone) do?
Female- Stimulates the follicles in the ovaries to produce estrogen
Male- Stimulates Sertoli cells for spermatogenesis
What does LH (Luteinizing Hormone) do?
Stimulates ovulation and the production of progesterone in the ovary-Females
Stimulates the interstitial cells of Leydig in the testis to produce testosterone-Males
What is the other name for Growth Hormone (GH)?
What does TSH (Thyroid Stimulating Hormone) do?
Stimulates the thyroid to produce Thyroxin
What does Prolactin do?
Promotes breast development and milk production (not milk ejection though)
Which lobe of the pituitary gland secretes hormones and which one stores (other ones) but does not secrete?
Posterior-stores (different hormones than the anterior)
What are the 2 hormones that the posterior pituitary lobe stores?
Oxytocin and ADH (Anti-diuretic Hormone)
What does Oxytocin do?
Stimulates contraction of uterine muscles (labor) and milk ejection
What does the pars intermedia (between ant. and post. lobes) secrete?
Melanin Stimulating Hormone (MSH)
What is the active hormone produced by the thyroid gland?
T3 (Tri-Iodothyronine)- Increases metabolism
The parafollicular cells of the thyroid glad secrete what?
What does PTH (parathyroid hormone) do?
Takes calcium from bone and puts it into the blood, increases calcium reabsorption in the kidneys and gut
What are the symptoms of hypocalcemia and hypercalcemia?
Hypo- Tetany and muscle spasm
Hyper- Muscle fatigue
What are the 3 layers of the adrenal cortex and what do they secrete?
Zona glomerulosa- aldosterone
Zona fasciculata- Cortisol
Zona reticularis- Pregnenolone
What does aldosterone do?
Causes water retention so acts on the kidneys to regulate Na+ reabsorption
Destruction of the adrenal cortex results in what disease?
Addison's disease (weight loss, low blood pressure & bronzing of skin)
All of the adrenal cortex hormones are produced from?
What does the adrenal medulla secrete?
Epinephrine and norepinephrine
Where are the endocrine cells in the pancreas found?
Islets of Langerhans
What amino acids could stimulate insulin secretion possibly?
Alanine and Leucine