Endocrine/Gastrointestinal Anatomy Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Endocrine/Gastrointestinal Anatomy Deck (30):
0

What is considered the "Master Endocrine Gland?"

Pituitary Gland

1

Which lobe of the pituitary PRODUCES hormones like FSH, LH, & GH (among others)?

Anterior lobe (Posterior lobe doesn't produce any)

2

What anatomical triangle does the thyroid gland lie in?

Anterior cervical triangle

3

Thyroid gland is supplied by which 3 arteries?

Superior thyroid artery
Inferior thyroid artery
Thyroidea ima (3-10%)

4

What is the only muscle that tenses the vocal cords?

Cricothyroid

5

What type of cells secrete calcitonin from the thyroid?

parafollicular cells

6

Parathyroid hormone (PH) is secreted by ____ cells in the parathyroid gland?

Chief

7

The main pancreatic duct joins which duct to open into the ampulla of Vater in the duodenum?

Common bile duct

8

The head of the pancreas is drained by what duct?

accessory pancreatic duct

9

What are the 3 structural zones of the cortex of the adrenal glands in order? (superficial-deep)

Zona glomerulosa
Zona fasciculata
Zona Reticularis

10

The medulla of the adrenal gland secretes what which is under sympathetic control?

Norepinephrin

11

The gastro-intestinal system is derived from?

Endoderm

12

Which congenital anomaly of the gastro-intestinal system has the "rule of 2's?"

Meckel's diverticulum (2% pop., 2 in. long, 2x more in males, etc.)

13

Which layer of peritoneum is sensitive to pain?

Parietal peritoneum

14

The organs in the abdominal cavity that are only covered anteriorly by peritoneum are called what?

retroperitoneal

15

Name the retroperitoneal structures. (AC DC PARK AID)

ascending colon, descending colon, pancreas, adrenals, rectum, kidneys, aorta, IVC, duodenum (2nd-4th parts)

16

The chief cells of the stomach produce what?

Pepsinogen

17

The parietal (oxynitic) cells of the stomach produce what?

Hydrochloric acid & Intrinsic factor

18

The common bile duct opens into which part of duodenum?

2nd part (descending)

19

The duodeno-jejunal junction is held in place by what ligament?

Suspensory ligament (of Treitz) which is attached to the right crus of the diaphragm

20

The opening for bile ducts into the 2nd part of the duodenum is guarded by what smooth muscle?

Sphincter of Oddi

21

Which part of the small intestine is thicker, wider and more vascular?

Jejunum

22

Which part of the small intestine has Peyer's patches?

Ileum

23

What artery supplies all of the small intestine and most of the large?

Superior mesenteric artery

24

The appendix is most often located here.

Behind cecum (65% of time)

25

In what order to lymphatics of the colon drain?

Pericolic, to paracolic, to mesenteric, to para-aortic

26

What artery supplies the rectum?

Superior rectal branch of the Interior mesenteric artery

27

The junction between the 2 embryological origins of the anal canal is called what?

Pectineal line

28

Whats the difference in muscle type between the internal and external anal sphincter's?

Internal- Smooth
External- Skeletal

29

Which part of the anal canal is sensitive to pain?

Lower half (derived from ectoderm)
-Upper half is derived from endoderm