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Flashcards in Respiratory/Other Anatomy Deck (62):
0

When do the alveoli develop in a fetus?

3rd trimester

1

At what vertebral level does the trachea begin?

C6 (lower border of the cricoid cartilage)

2

What connects the posterior part of the tracheal rings?

Trachealis muscle

3

The trachea ends at what vertebral level(s)?

T4/5 (sternal angle)

4

The bifurcation of the trachea is called what?

Carina

5

What primary bronchus is longer, narrower, and more horizontal?

Left primary bronchus

6

Which lung is bigger?

Right

7

Which pleural layer is sensitive to pain and what nerves supply that layer?

Parietal (outer) layer
Intercostal and phrenic nerves

8

The extension of the lungs into the neck is limited by what?

Suprapleural membrane (a fibrous structure)

9

What is the order in which the lymphatics of the lung drain?

Pulmonary nodes, to bronchopulmonary nodes, to tracheobronchial nodes, into para-tracheal nodes, finally into mediastinal lymphatic trunks

10

Venous drainage of the lungs is via what?

Azygos venous system

11

The azygos vein receives blood from what veins?

2nd-11th posterior intercostal and right subcostal veins

12

The hemiazygos vein receives blood from what veins?

9th-11th left intercostal veins and left subcostal vein

13

The accessory hemiazygos vein receives blood from which veins?

5th-8th left intercostal veins

14

What are the 3 major openings in the diaphragm and what passes through them?

T8- IVC, right phrenic nerve, and pericardiacophrenic vessels
T10- Esophagus and the vagus nerves
T12- Aorta, thoracic duct, and azygos vein

15

The phrenic nerve is derived from what levels?

C3, C4, C5 (keeps the diaphragm alive)

16

The medial arcuate ligament is over what muscle?

Psoas

17

The lateral arcuate ligament is over what muscle?

Quadratus lumborum

18

The outer cortex of lymph nodes has these types of cells?

Mature B cells organized into follicles

19

Inner cortex of lymph nodes has ________ cells?

Mature T cells

20

What types of cells leave lymph nodes via the hilum?

Activated lymphocytes

21

What is the "largest aggregation of lymphoid tissue?"

Spleen

22

What ribs does the spleen lie between?

9th and 11th in the left midaxillary line

23

What is the job of the red pulp in the spleen?

Destroy old RBC's

24

The gastrosplenic ligament contains what vessels?

Short gastric and left gastroepiploic arteries and veins

25

What is the largest internal organ in the body?

Liver

26

The coronary ligament suspends the liver to the undersurface of what?

Diaphragm

27

What is the region of the liver bounded by the coronary ligament called?

Bare area

28

Which anatomical lobe of the liver is divided in half between the 2 functional lobes? (Right and left)

Caudate lobe

29

The portal vein supplies the liver with ____% of its blood supply?

70%

30

The porta hepatis lies between which 2 anatomical lobes of the liver?

Caudate and quadrate

31

The common hepatic duct joins up with the _______ to form the common bile duct?

Cystic duct (from gallbladder)

32

What feature is found in the medulla of the Thymus and isn't found anywhere else in the body?

Hassall's corpuscles

33

The thoracic duct begins at what anatomical structure?

Cisterna chyli [L1]

34

Thoracic duct empty's into what veins?

Left internal jugular and subclavian veins

35

The thoracic duct drains lymph from what areas of the body?

Lower extremities
Left half of head and neck
Left chest

36

Lymph from the right side of the body (not including lower extremity) drains into what?

Right lymphatic duct

37

What are the layers of the epidermis of the skin from outside-in?

"Stratum" Corneum
Lucidum
Granulosum
Spinosum
Basale (Californian's Like Girls in String Bikinis)

38

What are the 2 layers of the dermis (skin)?

Papillary layer
Reticular layer

39

What are Meissner's corpuscles specialized to sense?

Pressure

40

Which skin layer contains the pacinian corpuscles and what are they sensitive to?

Hypodermis (subcutaneous layer)
Sensitive to vibration

41

Eccrine sweat glands are supplied by ______ nerves and apocrine glands are supplied by ______?

Cholinergic
Adrenergic (apocrine are only in axilla, mons pubis, and around anus)

42

Sebaceous glands produce an oily substance called?

Sebum

43

What attaches to the crest on the neck of typical vertebrae? (3-9)

Superior costotransverse ligament

44

What makes the 2nd rib atypical?

There is a large rough tuberosity near its middle for the attachment of the serratus anterior

45

The intercostal veins arteries and nerves (VAN) run between which 2 muscle layers?

Internal and innermost

46

The breasts are a modified version of what type of gland?

apocrine sweat gland

47

75% of the breast lymphatic drainage drains into what?

Anterior group of axillary nodes

48

The space between the lungs is called what?

Mediastinum

49

A horizontal line that separates the superior and inferior mediastinum is at what vertebral levels?

T4/T5

50

Where does the Esophagus begin?

Inferior border of the cricoid cartilage at C6

51

The esophagus passes through what structure at the level of T10?

Diaphragm

52

The upper 1/3, middle 1/3 and lower 1/3 of the esophagus are supplied by which arteries?

Inferior thyroid artery, thoracic aorta, and left gastric artery, respectively.

53

The hilum of the kidney has what structures in it?

Renal vein
Renal artery
Ureter

54

The renal veins drain into what structure?

Inferior vena cava

55

Give the order in which the kidneys drain in the medulla?

Pyramids, into minor calyces, into major calyces, into the renal pelvis

56

The ureter is innervated by fibers from what spinal levels?

T10-L1, S2-4

57

The bladder is made up of smooth muscle, specially named what?

Detrusor muscle

58

The internal sphincter of the bladder is relaxed by what nerve?

Pelvic splanchnic nerves (S2-4)

59

The external sphincter of the bladder is controlled by what nerve?

Pudendal nerve (S2-4)

60

The penile part of the urethra passes through what in the penis?

Corpus spongiosum (and then opens at the urethral orifice)

61

The male urethra is divided into 3 parts; what are they called?

Prostatic, membranous, and penile (makes sense)