Chemistry Exam 2 Flashcards Preview

Trakesha's 4th Quarter > Chemistry Exam 2 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chemistry Exam 2 Deck (97):
1

Sometimes a group of atoms behaves as if it were a single atom. This group has its own charge and name and is called a

radical or a polyatomic ion

2

Remembering the polyatomic ions

NICK the CAMEL ate a BABY CLAM for SUPPER in PHOENIX

3

To determine the total number of atoms of any element in any compound follow these steps:

1. take the coefficient (if present)
2. multiply by subscript (if present)
3. multiply those by number outside parentheses (if present)

4

SELECTED ELEMENTS

Hydrogen
Halogens
Nitrogen
Oxygen

5

a selected element; the most abundant element in the universe. 93% of all elements in the universe is this. Only element on the periodic table that DOES NOT contain neutrons

hydrogen

6

a selected element; All have 7 valence electrons in the outer most shell. In their ionic state have a negative number

halogens
(salt formers or group VII elements)

7

a selected element; most abundant element in the earth’s atmosphere

nitrogen
(occurrence)

8

a selected element; most abundant element on the surface of the earth

oxygen

9

types of halogens

chlorine
fluorine
bromine
iodine

10

a type of halogen that is used as a bleaching agent and disinfectant

chlorine

11

the most abundant compound on earth

water

12

dealing with the compound water; the splitting or tearing apart of compounds by the addition of water. ‹‹‹‹‹‹——this definition is more important in funeral service.
A chemical reaction between a salt and water which yields or produces an acid and base of unequal strength (KNOW BOTH DEFINITIONS)

Hydrolysis

13

dealing with the compound water; the amount of calcium and magnesium salts dissolved in water

hardness

14

dealing with the compound water; compounds in which there is a chemical union between water and certain substances when they crystallize

Hydrates

15

dealing with the compound water; removal or loss of water or moisture from a substance. Decreases secondary dilution. The dead human body especially the face and lips.

Dehydration
(desiccation)

16

hard water will cause the blood to do what in a dead human body?

clot

17

water hardness that can be removed by boiling

Temporary hardness

18

water hardness that CANNOT be removed by boiling.

Permanent hardness

19

The disassociation (breaking apart) of a substance in solution into ions.
Example: putting salt in water

ionization

20

dealing with ionization; a positively charged atom or group of atoms, i.e. sodium

Cation
"cat" ions

21

dealing with ionization; a negatively charged atom or group of atoms, i.e. chlorine

Anion

22

dealing with ionization; percentage of hydrogen ion in solution

pH

23

dealing with ionization; The chemical reaction between an acid and a base that will always form a salt and water

Neutralization

24

dealing with ionization; The compounds formed, other than water, in the chemical reaction between an acids and bases

Salts

25

dealing with ionization; have a pH of less than 7

Acids - acidic pH

26

dealing with ionization; have a pH above 7

Bases - alkaline pH

27

If you start out with a salt and water

hydrolysis

28

If you start with an acid and base

neutralization

29

To check a solution to being acidic or alkaline is by an indicator paper called

litmus paper

30

litmus paper comes in what two colors?

red or blue

31

The normal color of alkaline or basic pH when tested with a red litmus paper will turn the paper

blue

32

If blue litmus paper is used to test of an acidic solution it will turn the litmus paper

red

33

White on litmus paper would indicate

that it is neutral
pH of 7

34

theories on Acids:
substance which yields hydrogen or hydronium ions in aqueous solution. This definition is chemically correct

Arrhenius

35

theories on Acids: acids which donates a proton. A false theory

Bronsted - Lowry

36

theories on Acids: acids that accepts a pair of electrons. (His error was that electrons don’t have to be in pairs)

Lewis

37

theories on Bases: yields hydroxide ions in aqueous solution

Arrhenius

38

theories on Bases: a substance that accepts or gains a proton. A false theory

Bronsted - Lowry

39

theories on Bases: a substance that donates a pair of electrons

Lewis

40

physical properties of oxygen

an odorless, colorless, and tasteless gas. It is heavier than air

41

Chemical properties of oxygen

- Combines with most elements to produce compounds called oxides.
- Supports combustion (defined) - a rapid oxidation in which heat and light are produced - usually accompanied by a flame.
- Acts as an oxidizing agent.

42

compounds which contain two (2) elements one of which is oxygen.

oxides

43

oxidation can be defined in four ways

1) the addition of oxygen from a substance
2) the removal of hydrogen from a substance
3) increase in the oxidation number of an atom
4) the loss of electrons in reaction

44

reduction can be defined in four ways

1) loss or removal of oxygen from a substance
2) gain or addition of hydrogen to a substance
3) a decrease in charge or oxidation number of an atom
4) gain of electrons during reaction

45

redox _______ occur independently of each other

will never

46

LEO GERs

Oxidation- loss of electrons
Reduction- gain of electrons

47

OIL RIG

oxidation is loss of electrons
reduction is gain of electrons

48

**

In redox reactions, one substance is oxidized and another substance is reduced. A comparison of oxidation numbers can be made of the elements on the reactant side of the equation to the same elements on the product side. This comparison will determine which substance has been oxidized and which substance has been reduced

49

oxidizing agent is

reduced

50

reducing agent is

oxidized

51

whatever is oxidized

losses

52

whatever is reduced is

gained

53

Who says "Your loss is my gain"?

oxidizing agent

54

Who says "Sorry about that"?

reducing agent

55

_______ solutions (crystalloids) are homogenous mixtures of two or more substances

true

56

A/An ______ solution is one which contains water

aqueous

57

A solid solution known as a/an ______ is a metallic substance composed of two or more metallic substances

alloy

58

The component of a solution that is present in greatest quantity is called the _______

solvent

59

Solutions which contain relatively low concentrations of solute are called _____ solutions

dilute

60

Solutions which contain relatively high concentrations of solute are called ___________ solutions

concentrated

61

The component of a solution that is dissolved is called the ______

solute

62

The substance of a solution which does the dissolving is the ________

solvent

63

Relative to embalming fluids, a synonym for the solvent of water would be called the ______

vehicle

64

The amount of solute present in a given amount of solvent at saturation describes _____________.

saturation point

65

three qualitative terms

saturated
unsaturated
supersaturated

66

any solution which contains the maximum amount of solute which is capable of being dissolved at standard temperature and pressure

saturated

67

any solution which contains less than the maximum amount of solute which is capable of being dissolved

unsaturated

68

any solution which contains more solute than it is capable of dissolving.

supersaturated

69

When formaldehyde gas is dissolved in water the resulting solution is called _______

formalin

70

how are concentrations of solutions quantitatively expressed

ratio method
percentage method
parts per million

71

part solution to parts solute

ratio

72

percent of solution to percent of solute

percentage method

73

cubits of air

parts per million
ppm

74

TWA

0.75 ppm

75

STEL

2 ppm

76

Action Level

0.5 ppm

77

The number of grams of pure formaldehyde gas in 100 milliliters of solutions defines ______

index

78

The diffusion of fluids thru semipermeable membranes or porous partitions describes __________.

osmosis

79

does not need a semipermeable membrane

diffusion

80

Two solutions of equal concentrations

isotonic

81

meaning more or excessive solute

hypertonic solution

82

meaning less or below - less solute

hypotonic solution

83

In addition to true solutions, other solution like systems are _________ and _________ which differ primarily in particle size

emulsions
suspensions

84

Inasmuch as solutions are diffusible, they therefore lend themselves to ______ which is diffusion through membranes

osmosis

85

Two solutions that have the same solute concentration are said to be _______

isotonic

86

A ________ solution is one that contains a lower solute concentration that of the other solution.
This type solution may cause cells to burst which results in _________

hypotonic
hemolysis

87

Edematous remains would require a more __________ solution in order to __________ from body tissues

hypertonic (plasmoptysis)
withdraw moisture

88

a ________ solution is one that contains a higher solute concentration than the opposing solution. This, in turn will cause body cells to SHRINK which is called __________

hypertonic
crenation (plasmolysis)

89

Dehydrated bodies should be injected with a ________ solution

hypotonic

90

edematous bodies should be injected with a ________ solution

hypertonic

91

another type of solution like substance only designated by particle size. Examples are blood plasma and egg white solution, mayonnaise; also oil and vinegar.

emulsions

92

mixtures such as milk of magnesia

suspensions

93

a rapid oxidation in which heat and light are produced - usually accompanied by a flame.

combustion

94

Does oxygen burn?

no, it supports combustion

95

a slow oxidation that develops by itself into combustion.

Spontaneous combustion

96

NH(4)

Ammonium +1 is the only one

97

Hydroxide
Cyanide
Hypochlorite

OH -1
CN -1
OCl -1