Flashcards in Chemistry Exam 2 Deck (97):
Sometimes a group of atoms behaves as if it were a single atom. This group has its own charge and name and is called a
radical or a polyatomic ion
Remembering the polyatomic ions
NICK the CAMEL ate a BABY CLAM for SUPPER in PHOENIX
To determine the total number of atoms of any element in any compound follow these steps:
1. take the coefficient (if present)
2. multiply by subscript (if present)
3. multiply those by number outside parentheses (if present)
a selected element; the most abundant element in the universe. 93% of all elements in the universe is this. Only element on the periodic table that DOES NOT contain neutrons
a selected element; All have 7 valence electrons in the outer most shell. In their ionic state have a negative number
(salt formers or group VII elements)
a selected element; most abundant element in the earth’s atmosphere
a selected element; most abundant element on the surface of the earth
types of halogens
a type of halogen that is used as a bleaching agent and disinfectant
the most abundant compound on earth
dealing with the compound water; the splitting or tearing apart of compounds by the addition of water. ‹‹‹‹‹‹——this definition is more important in funeral service.
A chemical reaction between a salt and water which yields or produces an acid and base of unequal strength (KNOW BOTH DEFINITIONS)
dealing with the compound water; the amount of calcium and magnesium salts dissolved in water
dealing with the compound water; compounds in which there is a chemical union between water and certain substances when they crystallize
dealing with the compound water; removal or loss of water or moisture from a substance. Decreases secondary dilution. The dead human body especially the face and lips.
hard water will cause the blood to do what in a dead human body?
water hardness that can be removed by boiling
water hardness that CANNOT be removed by boiling.
The disassociation (breaking apart) of a substance in solution into ions.
Example: putting salt in water
dealing with ionization; a positively charged atom or group of atoms, i.e. sodium
dealing with ionization; a negatively charged atom or group of atoms, i.e. chlorine
dealing with ionization; percentage of hydrogen ion in solution
dealing with ionization; The chemical reaction between an acid and a base that will always form a salt and water
dealing with ionization; The compounds formed, other than water, in the chemical reaction between an acids and bases
dealing with ionization; have a pH of less than 7
Acids - acidic pH
dealing with ionization; have a pH above 7
Bases - alkaline pH
If you start out with a salt and water
If you start with an acid and base
To check a solution to being acidic or alkaline is by an indicator paper called
litmus paper comes in what two colors?
red or blue
The normal color of alkaline or basic pH when tested with a red litmus paper will turn the paper
If blue litmus paper is used to test of an acidic solution it will turn the litmus paper
White on litmus paper would indicate
that it is neutral
pH of 7
theories on Acids:
substance which yields hydrogen or hydronium ions in aqueous solution. This definition is chemically correct
theories on Acids: acids which donates a proton. A false theory
Bronsted - Lowry
theories on Acids: acids that accepts a pair of electrons. (His error was that electrons don’t have to be in pairs)
theories on Bases: yields hydroxide ions in aqueous solution
theories on Bases: a substance that accepts or gains a proton. A false theory
Bronsted - Lowry
theories on Bases: a substance that donates a pair of electrons
physical properties of oxygen
an odorless, colorless, and tasteless gas. It is heavier than air
Chemical properties of oxygen
- Combines with most elements to produce compounds called oxides.
- Supports combustion (defined) - a rapid oxidation in which heat and light are produced - usually accompanied by a flame.
- Acts as an oxidizing agent.
compounds which contain two (2) elements one of which is oxygen.
oxidation can be defined in four ways
1) the addition of oxygen from a substance
2) the removal of hydrogen from a substance
3) increase in the oxidation number of an atom
4) the loss of electrons in reaction
reduction can be defined in four ways
1) loss or removal of oxygen from a substance
2) gain or addition of hydrogen to a substance
3) a decrease in charge or oxidation number of an atom
4) gain of electrons during reaction
redox _______ occur independently of each other
Oxidation- loss of electrons
Reduction- gain of electrons
oxidation is loss of electrons
reduction is gain of electrons
In redox reactions, one substance is oxidized and another substance is reduced. A comparison of oxidation numbers can be made of the elements on the reactant side of the equation to the same elements on the product side. This comparison will determine which substance has been oxidized and which substance has been reduced
oxidizing agent is
reducing agent is
whatever is oxidized
whatever is reduced is
Who says "Your loss is my gain"?
Who says "Sorry about that"?
_______ solutions (crystalloids) are homogenous mixtures of two or more substances
A/An ______ solution is one which contains water
A solid solution known as a/an ______ is a metallic substance composed of two or more metallic substances
The component of a solution that is present in greatest quantity is called the _______
Solutions which contain relatively low concentrations of solute are called _____ solutions
Solutions which contain relatively high concentrations of solute are called ___________ solutions
The component of a solution that is dissolved is called the ______
The substance of a solution which does the dissolving is the ________
Relative to embalming fluids, a synonym for the solvent of water would be called the ______
The amount of solute present in a given amount of solvent at saturation describes _____________.
three qualitative terms
any solution which contains the maximum amount of solute which is capable of being dissolved at standard temperature and pressure
any solution which contains less than the maximum amount of solute which is capable of being dissolved
any solution which contains more solute than it is capable of dissolving.
When formaldehyde gas is dissolved in water the resulting solution is called _______
how are concentrations of solutions quantitatively expressed
parts per million
part solution to parts solute
percent of solution to percent of solute
cubits of air
parts per million
The number of grams of pure formaldehyde gas in 100 milliliters of solutions defines ______
The diffusion of fluids thru semipermeable membranes or porous partitions describes __________.
does not need a semipermeable membrane
Two solutions of equal concentrations
meaning more or excessive solute
meaning less or below - less solute
In addition to true solutions, other solution like systems are _________ and _________ which differ primarily in particle size
Inasmuch as solutions are diffusible, they therefore lend themselves to ______ which is diffusion through membranes
Two solutions that have the same solute concentration are said to be _______
A ________ solution is one that contains a lower solute concentration that of the other solution.
This type solution may cause cells to burst which results in _________
Edematous remains would require a more __________ solution in order to __________ from body tissues
a ________ solution is one that contains a higher solute concentration than the opposing solution. This, in turn will cause body cells to SHRINK which is called __________
Dehydrated bodies should be injected with a ________ solution
edematous bodies should be injected with a ________ solution
another type of solution like substance only designated by particle size. Examples are blood plasma and egg white solution, mayonnaise; also oil and vinegar.
mixtures such as milk of magnesia
a rapid oxidation in which heat and light are produced - usually accompanied by a flame.
Does oxygen burn?
no, it supports combustion
a slow oxidation that develops by itself into combustion.
Ammonium +1 is the only one