Chemistry Exam 4 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chemistry Exam 4 Deck (65):
1

an organic compound containing one or more –CHO groups. R is a hydrocarbon group or hydrogen

Aldehydes
R-CHO

2

functional group of the aldehydes

carbonyl

3

a double bond of oxygen to an end carbon

carbonyl

4

partial oxidation of a primary alcohol will form

an aldehyde

5

an alcohol deprived of hydrogen

aldehyde

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general formula for aldehyde

R-CHO

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an aldehyde is always located where?

on an end carbon

8

the first member of the aldehyde family

Methanal

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common name for Methanal

formaldehyde

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partial oxidation of carbon

Methanal
formaldehyde

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line formula for Methanal

HCHO

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preparation of Methanal

aldehydes are always produced by a partial oxidation of a primary alcohol

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properties of Methanal

(a) Colorless gas
(b) Irritating odor-pungent
(c) Soluble in water (combines with it to form methylene glycol)
(d) Oxidized to formic acid (common name), methanoic acid (IUPAC)
(e) Polymerization to paraformaldehyde solid form of formaldehyde.
The ability of a substance to form long chains (polymers) of the same basic chemical unit.
(f) Neutralization with ammonia (NH3) forming a salt - urotropin.
(g) Index - the number of grams of formaldehyde gas dissolved in a
100 ml of solution. Expressed as a whole number.

Lowest 8 jaundice
Highest 36

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Uses of formaldehyde

(a) Disinfectant
(b) Preservative – components of embalming solutions that are used to inactivate the active chemical groups of proteins and amino acids. They also retard or inhibit decomposition, destroy odor and eliminate their formation and inactivate enzymes

15

aqueous solution- (water mixture of formaldehyde gas and water)

formalin

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The saturation point of formaldehyde

37% by weight
40% by volume

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common name acetaldehyde (2nd member of the aldehyde family)

Ethanal

18

perfuming agent

Benzaldehyde

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organic compounds that contain two carbonyl groups. At least one has to be located on an end carbon

Dialdehydes

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two types of dialdehydes

(1) Glyoxal – IUPAC name ethanedial
(2) Glutaraldehyde – IUPAC 1, 5 - pentanedial

21

A better disinfectant but not as good as a preservative - larger molecule
Most common aldehyde

Glutaraldehyde – IUPAC 1, 5 - pentanedial

22

class of organic compounds in which the functional group (carbonyl) is/are attached to non- end carbon. Ketones are organic compounds always formed by the partial oxidation of a secondary alcohol.

ketones

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The minimum number of atoms to form a ketone

3

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The suffix of all ketones

one

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general formula for ketones

R-CO-R prime

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member of the ketones

Propanone (IUPAC)

27

common names for the ketone Propanone

dimethyl ketone or acetone (common names) – solvent
nail polish remover

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- family of organic compound which contain a carboxyl group off an end carbon

Carboxylic acids (organic acids)

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general formula for Carboxylic acids (organic acids)

R-COOH

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two members of the Carboxylic acids (organic acids)

methanoic acid
ethanoic acid

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common name for methanoic acid

formic acid

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formed by the partial oxidation of formaldehyde. Active ingredient in bee stings or fire ant bites. (Made from Methanal)

methanoic acid

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active ingredient in vinegar. (Made from Ethanal

ethanoic acid

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common name for ethanoic acid

acetic acid

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a family of organic compounds formed in the reaction between an alcohol and an organic acid

esters

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general formula for esters

R-COOR-R prime

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two member of esters

ethyl acetate
methyl acetate

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the IUPAC ending for any ester

ate

39

a member of the ester family, used in disinfectant sprays like Di-San

Ethyl acetate

40

a member of the ester family; its most famous use is as a masking agent, specially fumeless or odorless cavity fluids

Methyl salicylate

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common name for Methyl salicylate

oil of wintergreen

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a new class or family of organic compound formed by the reaction between two alcohols

ethers

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general formula for ethers

R-O-R prime

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the IUPAC suffix ending for ether

ether

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a member of the ether family

diethyl ether

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common name for diethyl ether

ether
anesthetic

47

the first family or class of organic compound which introduce the presence of the element nitrogen into the makeup of the organic compound. 2nd definition: Compounds formed from ammonia, by replacing one or more hydrogen atoms with organic radicals

amines

48

ALL Amines must have the presence of one

nitrogen

49

general formula for the amines

R-NH2

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the IUPAC suffix ending for amines

ine

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examples of amines

putrecine and cadaverine
methyl amine
quats

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the functional group of amines and is represented by NH2

amino

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Properties of Amines

(1) Alkaline in solution. (pH reading above 7)
(2) Disagreeable odor
(3) Decomposition products of protein

54

reaction with formaldehyde will be neautralized by

amines

55

Commonly called the Quats; Surface active agents used for disinfection of the skin, oral and nasal cavities, and instruments. Examples: Benzalkonium chloride / Zephrian chloride.

quaternary ammonium compounds

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Definition 1: organic compounds formed by the neutralization of an organic acid with ammonia. Definition 2: any compound derived from ammonia by substitution of a carbonyl group for hydrogen, or from any acid by replacing the hydroxyl group by an amino group.

amides

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general formula for the amides

R-CONH-R prime
R dash Connor

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the IUPAC suffix ending for the amides

ide

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an amide; used as a solvent and is also a hazardous chemical

diethyl formamide

60

this is listed with the amides, it is produced by body cells

urea

61

organic compounds similar to an alcohol, in which the oxygen of the hydroxyl group has replaced by a sulfur atom

Thioalcohols (Mercaptans)

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the general formula for the thioalchols (mercaptans)

R-SH

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the name of the functional group SH

sulfhydral

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examples of mercaptans

distinct odor in urine caused by increased ingestion of asparagus
ethyl maercaptan- a tracer gas so you notice a gas leak

65

DON'T FORGET TO GO OVER THE WORD EQUATIONS
YOU NEED TO KNOW THEM LIKE THE BACK OF YOUR HAND.

YOU WILL SEE THESE IN TRUE FALSE FORM!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!