Flashcards in Chemistry Exam 1 Deck (148)
The branch of natural science that is concerned with the description and classification of matter, the changes that matter undergoes, and the energy associated with those changes.
Three physical states of matter:
state of matter; definite mass, solid shape
state of matter; no definite volume or shape
5 divisions of chemistry
one of the five divisions of chemistry: a study of matter which does not contain carbon. That branch of chemistry that studies the properties and reactions of elements, excluding carbon. The absence or lack of carbon
one of the five divisions of chemistry: the branch of chemistry that deals with carbon-containing compounds, carbon based compounds
one of the five divisions of chemistry: that branch of chemistry dealing with compounds produced by living organisms.
one of the five divisions of chemistry: the study of those types of matter and changes in matter related to the disinfection and preservation of remains. The study of chemical post-mortem changes, the composition of embalming fluids, and the interactions between them.
one of the five divisions of chemistry: The chemistry of death. The study of physical and chemical changes in the body that are caused by death.
what are the chemical measurements in reference to the metric system?
The standard metric unit for length
The standard unit of volume in the metric system.
The standard unit of mass in the metric system.
The amount of heat required to raise the temperature of one (1) gram of water 1˚ Celsius at 15 Celsius STP (standard temperature and pressure).
scales to measure temperature
C (Celsius) can also stand for centigrade
K (Kelvin scale),
what is the difference between Fahrenheit and Celsius vs. Kelvin scale
no negative temperatures exist on the Kelvin scale; extremely cold (sperm bank)
also, you don't use degree symbol for Kelvin
Known freezing points on F scale
Known freezing points on C scale
Known freezing points on K scale
Boiling point of water on F scale
Boiling point of water on C scale
Boiling point of water on K scale
Anything that occupies space and possesses mass.
mass of any matter is
All matter possesses ________, only matter on Earth possesses _______
characteristics by which a substance could be identified
Properties of a substance that are observed without a change in chemical composition.
physical properties of matter
(1) State of matter
(4) Specific gravity
the measure of how well two substances mix.
the ratio of the mass of a substance to its volume.
a ratio of densities with water as a standard
The density of blood is slightly more _______ than water.
A characteristic that can be observed when a substance reacts with other substances resulting in a change in chemical composition.
Chemical Properties of matter
(1) Combustibility- cause change in chemical composition
2 types of changes in matter
physical and chemical changes
a change in the form or the state of matter without any change in chemical composition
physical changes in matter
changes in state
an example of the physical change in matter (change in state)
solid to gas (ice)
an example of the physical change in matter (solvation)
solid to a dissolved state. (Sugar dissolved)
changes in matter which a new substance or substances are formed or produced because the chemical composition has changed.
examples of chemical changes of matter
(1) Cremation of remains
(2) Decomposition of remains
(3) Embalming of remains
The state of matter in which the atoms or molecules move about in almost complete freedom from one other. They have no definite shape or volume; they will assume the shape and volume of the container in which they are located. Not all can be seen or smelled
terms associated with gases and properties
terms associated with gases and properties: the conversion of a solid or gas into a liquid.
terms associated with gases and properties: a change in a state of matter from a gas to a liquid.
terms associated with gases and properties: the physical change from a liquid into a gas.
terms associated with gases and properties: the movement of particles in solution from an area of higher concentration to lesser concentration until uniform concentration is achieved.
Substances that flow readily, but do not tend to expand indefinitely
terms associated with liquids and properties:
terms associated with liquids and properties: thickness - the resistance that a liquid exhibits to the flow of one layer over another arising from the molecular attraction between the molecules of a liquid.
terms associated with liquids and properties: the force that acts on the surface of a liquid and tends to minimize surface area.
terms associated with liquids and properties: movement of a liquid from a higher concentration to a lower concentration. Liquids don’t do this indefinitely.
terms associated with liquids and properties: the conversion of a liquid or gas into a solid form (water to an ice cube)
terms associated with liquids and properties: the process by which a substance is given a definite form. (Between water and ice cube)
terms associated with liquids and properties: a change of state of matter from a liquid to a solid by the loss of heat. Conversion of a liquid to a solid.
terms associated with liquids and properties: the rapid passage of liquid particles to the vapor or gas state by forming bubbles through the action of heat. Conversion of a liquid to a gas.
Blood is 4 ½ to 5 times thicker than water.
Is the melting point and the freezing point of water the same?
yes, exactly the same
The condensed state of matter that has a definite shape and definite volume
terms associated with solids and properties:
terms associated with solids and properties: a solid to a liquid
terms associated with solids and properties: conversion of a solid to a gas without first passing through the liquid state; e.g., dry ice (CO2) and iodine
types of matter based on composition
Simple substances which cannot be further broken down by ordinary chemical means.
the smallest or simplest particle of an element that still retains properties of the element
an atom of any element that has lost or gained an electron
Ion (Monatomic Ion)
the abbreviation of an element; The large letter by itself represents one (1) atom
At a minimum, a symbol will always begin with a ________ and have a maximum of ____
three (3) letters.
ONLY which letter for any element will be capitalized.
The large letter by itself represents
The small number written to the right and below the symbol. This represents the total number of atoms of an element
A number to the right and above the symbol of the element to represent that this element has a charge. There will always be a + or - in front of this
every element is?
The reactivity for all element of the periodic table is determined by the number of negatively charged particles they have floating around in their outer shell known as
Horizontal rows across the periodic table are known as they begin with number 1 and continue in order
periods or series
Vertical columns use numbers 1 - 8 or Roman numerals I - VIII called
groups or families
represent the total number of electrons orbiting in the outer most shell around that element.
composed of a central nucleus that has particles contained within it called protons and neutrons
A third particle which has a negative 1 charge moves around the atom in its outer orbit or shells.
the number of protons located in the nucleus of a single atom of that element. It will always be a whole number, never a percentage
Although a neutron has no charge, they do have
The number written below the symbol; the number of protons plus the number of neutrons contained in the nucleus of a single atom of that element.
Elements that differ only in terms of atomic weight but have the same atomic number are known as
To determine the number of neutrons for any element, you would ?
take atomic weight which is given and subtract the atomic number
have a positive charge
shells can contain up to ___ electrons
the inner most shell of any element has a maximum capacity of __ electrons.
The maximum number of electrons in the valence or outermost shell
The maximum number of electrons you can ever gain or lose in any element
Any atom that gains or loses electrons are called
they do not go into chemical reaction with other elements. They tend to be unreactive and have complete filled valence shells.
Nobel or inert gases
also known as GROUP 8 OR GROUP 0
Types of elements
a type of element; more metallic, All are solid except mercury which is a liquid. They are shiny, lustrous, conduct electricity and heat, it is malleable or ductile Good conductors of electricity.
can be formed into long sheets)
can be stretched into wire
Most metals tend to _____ electrons in chemical reaction, and have a _______charge in their ionic state.
Metals are located on the____side of the periodic table.
Metals tend to be ______ ions - charges.
any element that is not a metal. Located on the right side of the periodic table. Non-metals tend to gain electrons, and therefore have negative charges (oxidation number). Usually liquid or gas - noble gases or inert gases
Substances that consist of two or more atoms chemically combined in definite proportions by mass.
smallest unit of a compound that can exist alone and still retain properties of that compound.
Molecule(s) including diatomic
For any compound to exist, you need at least ___ atoms.
- Two or more atoms of the same element that unite together to form a compound
the abbreviation for any compound
The most famous formula in chemistry
If you have more than one molecule of any compound, how would you write your formula?
place a whole number in front of the formula
the name given the whole number in front of a formula, which represent the number of molecules is called a
Examples of inorganic compounds
a compound which has a pH below 7. It is acidic.
a compound that has a pH above 7. It is alkaline.
compounds which are formed in the reaction between an acid and base other than water.
compounds consisting of two or more elements, once of which is oxygen
a (an) _____ is to an element what a ______ is to a compound
A combination of two or more substances that is not chemically combined and is not in definite proportion by weight
Examples of mixtures
The ability of a system or material to do work
two types of energy
energy which is stored
energy of motion
the abbreviation for an element is a(an)
the abbreviation for a compound is a(an)
the abbreviation for a chemical change is a(an)
a number written to the left or in front of a symbol or formula; which represent the total number of molecules is called a(an)
a number written to the right and slightly below the symbol or formula is called a(an)
formulas are usually written as the ___________ portion written first; a non metallic portion written last
usually appear on have a positive oxidation number