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Flashcards in Chemistry Exam 1 Deck (148):
1

The branch of natural science that is concerned with the description and classification of matter, the changes that matter undergoes, and the energy associated with those changes.

chemistry

2

Three physical states of matter:

solid
liquid
gases

3

state of matter; definite mass, solid shape

solid

4

state of matter; no definite volume or shape

gases

5

????

liquids

6

5 divisions of chemistry

inorganic chemistry
organic chemistry
biochemistry
embalming chemistry
thanatochemistry

7

one of the five divisions of chemistry: a study of matter which does not contain carbon. That branch of chemistry that studies the properties and reactions of elements, excluding carbon. The absence or lack of carbon

inorganic chemistry

8

one of the five divisions of chemistry: the branch of chemistry that deals with carbon-containing compounds, carbon based compounds

organic chemistry

9

one of the five divisions of chemistry: that branch of chemistry dealing with compounds produced by living organisms.

biochemistry

10

one of the five divisions of chemistry: the study of those types of matter and changes in matter related to the disinfection and preservation of remains. The study of chemical post-mortem changes, the composition of embalming fluids, and the interactions between them.

embalming chemistry

11

one of the five divisions of chemistry: The chemistry of death. The study of physical and chemical changes in the body that are caused by death.

thanatochemistry

12

what are the chemical measurements in reference to the metric system?

meter
liter
kilogram
calorie

13

The standard metric unit for length

meter

14

The standard unit of volume in the metric system.

liter

15

The standard unit of mass in the metric system.

kilogram

16

The amount of heat required to raise the temperature of one (1) gram of water 1˚ Celsius at 15 Celsius STP (standard temperature and pressure).

calorie

17

scales to measure temperature

F (Fahrenheit)
C (Celsius) can also stand for centigrade
K (Kelvin scale),

18

what is the difference between Fahrenheit and Celsius vs. Kelvin scale

no negative temperatures exist on the Kelvin scale; extremely cold (sperm bank)
also, you don't use degree symbol for Kelvin

19

Known freezing points on F scale

32˚ F

20

Known freezing points on C scale

0˚ C

21

Known freezing points on K scale

273 K

22

Boiling point of water on F scale

212˚ F

23

Boiling point of water on C scale

100˚ C

24

Boiling point of water on K scale

373 K

25

Anything that occupies space and possesses mass.

matter

26

mass of any matter is

constant

27

All matter possesses ________, only matter on Earth possesses _______

mass
weight

28

characteristics by which a substance could be identified

properties

29

Properties of a substance that are observed without a change in chemical composition.

physical properties

30

physical properties of matter

(1) State of matter
(2) Solubility
(3) Density
(4) Specific gravity

31

the measure of how well two substances mix.

Solubility

32

the ratio of the mass of a substance to its volume.

Density
D=M÷V

33

a ratio of densities with water as a standard

Specific gravity

34

The density of blood is slightly more _______ than water.

viscous

35

A characteristic that can be observed when a substance reacts with other substances resulting in a change in chemical composition.

Chemical Properties

36

Chemical Properties of matter

(1) Combustibility- cause change in chemical composition

(2) Reactivity-

37

2 types of changes in matter

physical and chemical changes

38

a change in the form or the state of matter without any change in chemical composition

physical change

39

physical changes in matter

changes in state
solvation (dissolving)

40

an example of the physical change in matter (change in state)

solid to gas (ice)

41

an example of the physical change in matter (solvation)

solid to a dissolved state. (Sugar dissolved)

42

changes in matter which a new substance or substances are formed or produced because the chemical composition has changed.

chemical changes

43

examples of chemical changes of matter

(1) Cremation of remains
(2) Decomposition of remains
(3) Embalming of remains

44

The state of matter in which the atoms or molecules move about in almost complete freedom from one other. They have no definite shape or volume; they will assume the shape and volume of the container in which they are located. Not all can be seen or smelled

gases

45

terms associated with gases and properties

Liquefaction
Condensation
Vaporization
Diffusion

46

terms associated with gases and properties: the conversion of a solid or gas into a liquid.

Liquefaction

47

terms associated with gases and properties: a change in a state of matter from a gas to a liquid.

Condensation

48

terms associated with gases and properties: the physical change from a liquid into a gas.

Vaporization

49

terms associated with gases and properties: the movement of particles in solution from an area of higher concentration to lesser concentration until uniform concentration is achieved.

Diffusion

50

Substances that flow readily, but do not tend to expand indefinitely

Liquids

51

terms associated with liquids and properties:

Viscosity
Surface tension
Diffusion
Solidification
Crystallization
Freezing
Boiling

52

terms associated with liquids and properties: thickness - the resistance that a liquid exhibits to the flow of one layer over another arising from the molecular attraction between the molecules of a liquid.

Viscosity

53

terms associated with liquids and properties: the force that acts on the surface of a liquid and tends to minimize surface area.

Surface tension

54

terms associated with liquids and properties: movement of a liquid from a higher concentration to a lower concentration. Liquids don’t do this indefinitely.

Diffusion

55

terms associated with liquids and properties: the conversion of a liquid or gas into a solid form (water to an ice cube)

Solidification

56

terms associated with liquids and properties: the process by which a substance is given a definite form. (Between water and ice cube)

Crystallization

57

terms associated with liquids and properties: a change of state of matter from a liquid to a solid by the loss of heat. Conversion of a liquid to a solid.

Freezing

58

terms associated with liquids and properties: the rapid passage of liquid particles to the vapor or gas state by forming bubbles through the action of heat. Conversion of a liquid to a gas.

Boiling

59

***

Blood is 4 ½ to 5 times thicker than water.

60

Is the melting point and the freezing point of water the same?

yes, exactly the same

61

The condensed state of matter that has a definite shape and definite volume

solids

62

terms associated with solids and properties:

Melting

Sublimation

63

terms associated with solids and properties: a solid to a liquid

melting

64

terms associated with solids and properties: conversion of a solid to a gas without first passing through the liquid state; e.g., dry ice (CO2) and iodine

Sublimation

65

types of matter based on composition

elements
compounds
mixture

66

Simple substances which cannot be further broken down by ordinary chemical means.

elements

67

the smallest or simplest particle of an element that still retains properties of the element

atom

68

an atom of any element that has lost or gained an electron

Ion (Monatomic Ion)

69

the abbreviation of an element; The large letter by itself represents one (1) atom

symbol

70

At a minimum, a symbol will always begin with a ________ and have a maximum of ____

capital letter
three (3) letters.

71

ONLY which letter for any element will be capitalized.

first

72

The large letter by itself represents

one atom

73

The small number written to the right and below the symbol. This represents the total number of atoms of an element

Subscript

74

A number to the right and above the symbol of the element to represent that this element has a charge. There will always be a + or - in front of this

Superscript

75

every element is?

electronically neutral

76

The reactivity for all element of the periodic table is determined by the number of negatively charged particles they have floating around in their outer shell known as

valence shell

77

Horizontal rows across the periodic table are known as they begin with number 1 and continue in order

periods or series

78

Vertical columns use numbers 1 - 8 or Roman numerals I - VIII called

groups or families

79

represent the total number of electrons orbiting in the outer most shell around that element.

group number

80

composed of a central nucleus that has particles contained within it called protons and neutrons

atom

81

A third particle which has a negative 1 charge moves around the atom in its outer orbit or shells.

electron

82

the number of protons located in the nucleus of a single atom of that element. It will always be a whole number, never a percentage

Atomic number

83

Although a neutron has no charge, they do have

mass

84

The number written below the symbol; the number of protons plus the number of neutrons contained in the nucleus of a single atom of that element.

atomic weight

85

Elements that differ only in terms of atomic weight but have the same atomic number are known as

isotopes

86

To determine the number of neutrons for any element, you would ?

take atomic weight which is given and subtract the atomic number

87

have a positive charge

protons

88

shells can contain up to ___ electrons

32

89

the inner most shell of any element has a maximum capacity of __ electrons.

2

90

The maximum number of electrons in the valence or outermost shell

8

91

The maximum number of electrons you can ever gain or lose in any element

4

92

Any atom that gains or loses electrons are called

ions

93

Al

aluminum

94

Br

Bromine

95

Ca

Calcium

96

C

Carbon

97

Cl

Chlorine

98

Cu

Copper

99

F

Fluorine

100

He

Helium

101

H

Hydrogen

102

I

Iodine

103

Fe

Iron

104

Hg

Mercury

105

N

Nitrogen

106

O

Oxygen

107

P

Phosphorous

108

K

Potassium

109

Na

Sodium

110

S

Sulfur

111

Na+1 Cl-1
NaCl-

table salt

112

they do not go into chemical reaction with other elements. They tend to be unreactive and have complete filled valence shells.

Nobel or inert gases
also known as GROUP 8 OR GROUP 0

113

Types of elements

Metals
Non-metals

114

a type of element; more metallic, All are solid except mercury which is a liquid. They are shiny, lustrous, conduct electricity and heat, it is malleable or ductile Good conductors of electricity.

metals

115

can be formed into long sheets)

malleable

116

can be stretched into wire

ductile

117

Most metals tend to _____ electrons in chemical reaction, and have a _______charge in their ionic state.

lose
positive

118

Metals are located on the____side of the periodic table.

left

119

Metals tend to be ______ ions - charges.

positive

120

any element that is not a metal. Located on the right side of the periodic table. Non-metals tend to gain electrons, and therefore have negative charges (oxidation number). Usually liquid or gas - noble gases or inert gases

non-metals

121

Substances that consist of two or more atoms chemically combined in definite proportions by mass.

Compounds

122

smallest unit of a compound that can exist alone and still retain properties of that compound.

Molecule(s) including diatomic

123

For any compound to exist, you need at least ___ atoms.

2

124

- Two or more atoms of the same element that unite together to form a compound

Diatomic

125

the abbreviation for any compound

Formula

126

The most famous formula in chemistry

H2O

127

If you have more than one molecule of any compound, how would you write your formula?

place a whole number in front of the formula

128

the name given the whole number in front of a formula, which represent the number of molecules is called a

coefficient

129

Examples of inorganic compounds

acids
bases
salts
oxides

130

a compound which has a pH below 7. It is acidic.

acids

131

a compound that has a pH above 7. It is alkaline.

bases

132

compounds which are formed in the reaction between an acid and base other than water.

salts

133

compounds consisting of two or more elements, once of which is oxygen

oxide

134

a (an) _____ is to an element what a ______ is to a compound

atom
molecule

135

A combination of two or more substances that is not chemically combined and is not in definite proportion by weight

Mixture

136

Examples of mixtures

air
embalming fluids
blood

137

The ability of a system or material to do work

energy

138

two types of energy

potential
kinetic

139

energy which is stored

potential

140

energy of motion

kinetic

141

the abbreviation for an element is a(an)

symbol

142

the abbreviation for a compound is a(an)

formula

143

the abbreviation for a chemical change is a(an)

chemical equation

144

a number written to the left or in front of a symbol or formula; which represent the total number of molecules is called a(an)

coefficient

145

a number written to the right and slightly below the symbol or formula is called a(an)

subscript

146

formulas are usually written as the ___________ portion written first; a non metallic portion written last

metallic

147

usually appear on have a positive oxidation number

metal

148

usually have a negative oxidation number

non metal