Embalming 3- Exam 3 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Embalming 3- Exam 3 Deck (53):
1

the second major procedure in the sanitation and temporary preservation of the dead human body.
The direct treatment other than arterial injection of the contents of the body cavities and the lumina (openings) of the hollow viscera

CAVITY EMBALMING

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cavity embalming is achieved in two ways:

Aspiration
Injection of a proper amount of a suitable chemical, undiluted cavity fluid.

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recommended amount of cavity fluid for a normal adult

16 oz in the thoracic cavity
16 oz in abdominal cavity

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purpose of cavity embalming

To supplement vascular embalming, by direct treatment of the contents of the hollow viscera and area between the organs.
To reduce putrefactive changes caused by areas not receiving arterial fluid

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when is cavity embalming performed

1. Immediately after vascular injection
- Inject cavity fluid to prevent gas formation and decomposition from starting.
2. Wait a period of time (an hour or longer).
- Allow arterial fluid sufficient time to take effect (diffuse).

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instruments and equipment required for cavity embalming

Trocar
Tubing - attaches trocar to aspirator. It is recommended to use clear tubing.
Hydroaspirator
Electric aspirator – not influenced by changes in water pressure. Usually come in one speed
Hand pump – Thomas Holmes – suitable for both aspiration and injection.
Cavity Injector – threaded instrument, on side it has a carburetor.
Trocar button – used for closure of trocar insert.
Nasal tube aspirator – curved shaped to better insert into the nose, can be used to aspirate through the mouth.

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OD and WL for adult trocar

3/8 inch
16 inches long

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OD and WL for infant trocar

5/16 inch
7 inches long

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how to establish the nine region plan for abdominal region

Extend two vertical lines upward from a point midway between the anterior superior iliac spine and the symphysis pubis and two horizontal lines, one at the inferior margin of the 10th costal cartilage and the other at the tubercles of the iliac crests.

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upper region of the nine region plan

Right hypochondriac- under the cartilage
Epigastric- under stomach
Left hypochondriac

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middle region of the nine region plan

Right lumbar- loin or lower back, love handle region
Umbilical- central
Left lumbar

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lower region of the nine region plan

Right inguinal (iliac) – groin, hip bone
Hypo gastric (pubic region) most anterior segment
Left inguinal (iliac)

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organs of the right hypochondriac region

portions of the liver
gallbladder

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organs of the epigastric region

pancreas
stomach

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organs of the left hypochondriac region

spleen
left colic (splenic flexure) bend

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for testing purposes, the only region you will find the gallbladder is

only in the right hypochondriac region

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where is the pancreas located

posterior to the stomach

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major organ of the right lumbar region

ascending colon

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major organs of the umbilical region

transverse colon
umbilicus

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major organ of the left lumbar region

descending colon

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major organs of the right inguinal (iliac) region

cecum (1st division of the large intestine)
vermiform appendix

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major organs of the hypogastric region

urinary bladder when distended (in both sexes)
prostate gland (men)

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major organ of the left inguinal (iliac) region

sigmoid colon
(That portion that goes halfway across)

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which quadrant of the body is the cecum located in?

lower right quadrant

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materials that are aspirated

gases
fluids
semi-solids

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********

copious amounts of blood indicates hemo peritoneum
clear amber or straw colored indicates ascites

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for testing purposes, there is no specific order for cavity treatment, although most embalmers like to treat what first

heart

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Common insertion point for the trocar

The trocar is inserted two (2) inches superior (above) and two (2) inches to the left of the subject’s umbilicus

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what are the two exceptions to the common insertion point for the trocar

gastric feeding tube and a stoma or colostomy bag opening. In any case, the trocar should NOT go past the neck

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National Board Question: During cavity treatment of the stomach penetrate walls of the stomach from outermost to innermost; namely

serosa, muscularis, submucosa, mucosa

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cavity treatment for stomach

Direct the trocar point toward the intersection of the fifth (5th) intercostal space and the left mid-axillary line; continue until the trocar enters the stomach

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cavity treatment for cecum

Direct the trocar toward a point one-fourth (1/4) of the distance from the right anterior superior iliac spine to the pubic symphysis; keep the point of the trocar close to the abdominal wall until within two to four (2-4) inches of the right anterior superior iliac spine; dip trocar two (2) inches insert forward

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cavity treatment for urinary bladder

Direct trocar toward intersection of median line and pubic bone (symphysis publis), keeping it toward the surface until it touches the pubic bone; withdraw it slightly (1/2 inch), dip the point slightly and insert into the urinary bladder

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cavity treatment for heart (right side)

Direct trocar along a line from the left anterior superior iliac spine to the lobe of the right ear; keep point close to the abdominal wall until it pierces the diaphragm, then dip the point downward and into the right side of the heart

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materials aspirated from lungs

blood, edema, purulent material, gases

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materials aspirated from stomach

hydrochloric acid, undigested food, blood, gases (comes from nose and mouth)

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material aspirated from small intestine

gases, blood, undigested food

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materials aspirated from heart

blood (mainly in the right atrium)

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materials aspirated from large intestine

gases, blood, fecal material (occult blood- colon cancer)

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materials aspirated from urinary bladder

urine, blood (renal infections such as bladder cancer)

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what type of fluid is used for cavity embalming

Concentrated (undiluted) cavity fluid is always used

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the volume of chemical is determined by

the mass of tissue to be treated

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The undiluted cavity fluid may be injected by two methods

Gravity injector – (using cavity injector)
Machine injection -

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When injecting; the tip of the trocar should be kept where

close to the top of the cavity wall. This will allow the chemical to gravitate to all areas of the cavity

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point of entry for cranial aspiration/injection

the right or left nostril, passing the small trocar through the cribriform plate of the ethmoid bone

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how many ounces of fluid for cranial aspiration/injection

a few ounces (usually not more than 4 ounces undiluted cavity fluid) of concentrated cavity fluid, tightly pack the nostril to prevent leakage

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CONDITIONS NECESSITATING CRANIAL CAVITY TREATMENT:

 Any disease of the brain
 Cerebral hemorrhage
 Gas within the cranium
 Trauma of the cranial cavity

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REDUCTION OF DISTENDED NECK (BY USING A TROCAR)

Channel neck tissues with trocar after vascular injection to allow for drainage of excess liquids into the body. Insert trocar at normal insertion point then direct the tip of the trocar into the neck region. The fluid should flow down into the thoracic cavity. To help force the fluid down the neck can be massaged

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REASPIRATION IS REQUIRED WHEN:

 Gas formation causes distention or purge
For testing purpose, any time you reaspirate a body, you want to re-inject cavity fluid
 Prior to shipping a body
 Advanced decomposition
 An obese person
 A person that died of an infectious disease
 A person with ascites (excess fluid in the abdominal cavity) clear, amber or straw colored fluid
 Reinjection may be necessary on certain cases

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CLOSURE OF THE ABDOMINAL OPENING

1. Trocar button – provides complete closure and is easily removed if further aspiration and reinjection is necessary.
2. Suture (purse string suture) – goes around the edge of the trocar incision. Offers a complete closure. Stitches are made around the opening, with the loose ends pulled tightly when completed. A bow can be used to secure the suture when completed.

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just below the skin a condition where there is an exceptional and noticeable amount of gas in the tissues prior to embalming

ANTE MORTEM SUBCUTANEOUS EMPHYSEMA

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ante mortem subcutaneous emphysema is caused by

the rupture or puncture, or tearing the pleural sac of the lung

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METHODS OF IMPROVING FLUID DISTRIBUTION

Increase rate of flow, Increase injection pressure, restrict the drainage – this increase intravascular pressure, massage the body – toward point of injection, Lower the arm.