Flashcards in Embalming 3- Exam 3 Deck (53)
the second major procedure in the sanitation and temporary preservation of the dead human body.
The direct treatment other than arterial injection of the contents of the body cavities and the lumina (openings) of the hollow viscera
cavity embalming is achieved in two ways:
Injection of a proper amount of a suitable chemical, undiluted cavity fluid.
recommended amount of cavity fluid for a normal adult
16 oz in the thoracic cavity
16 oz in abdominal cavity
purpose of cavity embalming
To supplement vascular embalming, by direct treatment of the contents of the hollow viscera and area between the organs.
To reduce putrefactive changes caused by areas not receiving arterial fluid
when is cavity embalming performed
1. Immediately after vascular injection
- Inject cavity fluid to prevent gas formation and decomposition from starting.
2. Wait a period of time (an hour or longer).
- Allow arterial fluid sufficient time to take effect (diffuse).
instruments and equipment required for cavity embalming
Tubing - attaches trocar to aspirator. It is recommended to use clear tubing.
Electric aspirator – not influenced by changes in water pressure. Usually come in one speed
Hand pump – Thomas Holmes – suitable for both aspiration and injection.
Cavity Injector – threaded instrument, on side it has a carburetor.
Trocar button – used for closure of trocar insert.
Nasal tube aspirator – curved shaped to better insert into the nose, can be used to aspirate through the mouth.
OD and WL for adult trocar
16 inches long
OD and WL for infant trocar
7 inches long
how to establish the nine region plan for abdominal region
Extend two vertical lines upward from a point midway between the anterior superior iliac spine and the symphysis pubis and two horizontal lines, one at the inferior margin of the 10th costal cartilage and the other at the tubercles of the iliac crests.
upper region of the nine region plan
Right hypochondriac- under the cartilage
Epigastric- under stomach
middle region of the nine region plan
Right lumbar- loin or lower back, love handle region
lower region of the nine region plan
Right inguinal (iliac) – groin, hip bone
Hypo gastric (pubic region) most anterior segment
Left inguinal (iliac)
organs of the right hypochondriac region
portions of the liver
organs of the epigastric region
organs of the left hypochondriac region
left colic (splenic flexure) bend
for testing purposes, the only region you will find the gallbladder is
only in the right hypochondriac region
where is the pancreas located
posterior to the stomach
major organ of the right lumbar region
major organs of the umbilical region
major organ of the left lumbar region
major organs of the right inguinal (iliac) region
cecum (1st division of the large intestine)
major organs of the hypogastric region
urinary bladder when distended (in both sexes)
prostate gland (men)
major organ of the left inguinal (iliac) region
(That portion that goes halfway across)
which quadrant of the body is the cecum located in?
lower right quadrant
materials that are aspirated
copious amounts of blood indicates hemo peritoneum
clear amber or straw colored indicates ascites
for testing purposes, there is no specific order for cavity treatment, although most embalmers like to treat what first
Common insertion point for the trocar
The trocar is inserted two (2) inches superior (above) and two (2) inches to the left of the subject’s umbilicus
what are the two exceptions to the common insertion point for the trocar
gastric feeding tube and a stoma or colostomy bag opening. In any case, the trocar should NOT go past the neck
National Board Question: During cavity treatment of the stomach penetrate walls of the stomach from outermost to innermost; namely
serosa, muscularis, submucosa, mucosa
cavity treatment for stomach
Direct the trocar point toward the intersection of the fifth (5th) intercostal space and the left mid-axillary line; continue until the trocar enters the stomach
cavity treatment for cecum
Direct the trocar toward a point one-fourth (1/4) of the distance from the right anterior superior iliac spine to the pubic symphysis; keep the point of the trocar close to the abdominal wall until within two to four (2-4) inches of the right anterior superior iliac spine; dip trocar two (2) inches insert forward
cavity treatment for urinary bladder
Direct trocar toward intersection of median line and pubic bone (symphysis publis), keeping it toward the surface until it touches the pubic bone; withdraw it slightly (1/2 inch), dip the point slightly and insert into the urinary bladder
cavity treatment for heart (right side)
Direct trocar along a line from the left anterior superior iliac spine to the lobe of the right ear; keep point close to the abdominal wall until it pierces the diaphragm, then dip the point downward and into the right side of the heart
materials aspirated from lungs
blood, edema, purulent material, gases
materials aspirated from stomach
hydrochloric acid, undigested food, blood, gases (comes from nose and mouth)
material aspirated from small intestine
gases, blood, undigested food
materials aspirated from heart
blood (mainly in the right atrium)
materials aspirated from large intestine
gases, blood, fecal material (occult blood- colon cancer)
materials aspirated from urinary bladder
urine, blood (renal infections such as bladder cancer)
what type of fluid is used for cavity embalming
Concentrated (undiluted) cavity fluid is always used
the volume of chemical is determined by
the mass of tissue to be treated
The undiluted cavity fluid may be injected by two methods
Gravity injector – (using cavity injector)
Machine injection -
When injecting; the tip of the trocar should be kept where
close to the top of the cavity wall. This will allow the chemical to gravitate to all areas of the cavity
point of entry for cranial aspiration/injection
the right or left nostril, passing the small trocar through the cribriform plate of the ethmoid bone
how many ounces of fluid for cranial aspiration/injection
a few ounces (usually not more than 4 ounces undiluted cavity fluid) of concentrated cavity fluid, tightly pack the nostril to prevent leakage
CONDITIONS NECESSITATING CRANIAL CAVITY TREATMENT:
Any disease of the brain
Gas within the cranium
Trauma of the cranial cavity
REDUCTION OF DISTENDED NECK (BY USING A TROCAR)
Channel neck tissues with trocar after vascular injection to allow for drainage of excess liquids into the body. Insert trocar at normal insertion point then direct the tip of the trocar into the neck region. The fluid should flow down into the thoracic cavity. To help force the fluid down the neck can be massaged
REASPIRATION IS REQUIRED WHEN:
Gas formation causes distention or purge
For testing purpose, any time you reaspirate a body, you want to re-inject cavity fluid
Prior to shipping a body
An obese person
A person that died of an infectious disease
A person with ascites (excess fluid in the abdominal cavity) clear, amber or straw colored fluid
Reinjection may be necessary on certain cases
CLOSURE OF THE ABDOMINAL OPENING
1. Trocar button – provides complete closure and is easily removed if further aspiration and reinjection is necessary.
2. Suture (purse string suture) – goes around the edge of the trocar incision. Offers a complete closure. Stitches are made around the opening, with the loose ends pulled tightly when completed. A bow can be used to secure the suture when completed.
just below the skin a condition where there is an exceptional and noticeable amount of gas in the tissues prior to embalming
ANTE MORTEM SUBCUTANEOUS EMPHYSEMA
ante mortem subcutaneous emphysema is caused by
the rupture or puncture, or tearing the pleural sac of the lung